Principal Doctrines of Pushtibhaktimarga: A True representation of the views of Sri Vallabhacharya (In the context..

Doctrines of Pushtibhaktimarga: A True representation of the views of Sri Vallabhacharya (In the context of Maharaj Libel Case)

, , , , ,
0 / 0
How much do you like this book?
What’s the quality of the file?
Download the book for quality assessment
What’s the quality of the downloaded files?
This book focuses on demystifying the mis-conceptions regarding the true and essential characteristics of Pushtimarga in light of the allegations presented in the court during the Maharaj Libel case of 1862 A.D. A lot of books, articles and materials were published on the Maharaj Libel case in past but unfortunately, none of them presented an unprejudiced, unbiased, fair and honest perspective based on the true principles of Pushtimarg as per the founding preceptor - Sri Vallabhacharya. The book presents the honest interpretation of the core principles of Pushtimarg as per the doctrines of Sri Vallabhacharya. The book critically analyzes the arguments presented in the court proceedings, validates them by investigating the facts based on honest interpretation of the core principles of Pushtimarg. The book takes a wholistic approach and presents a broader perspective of analyzing it based on the socio-political affiliations of the actors affiliated with the case, enlists all the myths related to Pushtimarg and debunks them. Although the original title of the book was "Doctrines of Pushtibhaktimarga: Allegations, Conspiracies and Facts (In the context of the Maharaj Libel case", we thought a renewed title was needed to clarify our intention which in reality was to analyze the Maharaj Libel case in light of the true representation of the principles of Pushtimarga as per Sri Vallabhacharya.
Año:
2021
Editorial:
Shri Vallabhacharya Trust, Mandvi - Kutch
Idioma:
hindi
Páginas:
247
ISBN 13:
9789382786375
Archivo:
PDF, 2,60 MB
Descargar (pdf, 2,60 MB)
0 comments
 

Puede escribir una reseña de un libro y compartir sus experiencias. Otros lectores siempre estarán interesados en su opinión sobre los libros que ha leído. No importa si el libro le haya gustado o no: si Ud. expresa sus pensamientos en forma honesta y detallada, entonces otras personas podrán con mayor facilidad encontrar nuevos libros de interés para ellos.
1

Heroes of Olympus - The Blood of Olympus

Año:
2014
Idioma:
english
Archivo:
PDF, 3,11 MB
5.0 / 0
2

The Fallen God: A LitRPG Adventure (Eternal Online Book 3)

Año:
2020
Idioma:
english
Archivo:
EPUB, 549 KB
0 / 0
nw{ï>^p³VH$m g¡ÕmpÝVH$ ñdê$n :
Hw$e§H$m, {IbdmS> Ed§ g‘mYmZ
(‘hmamO bm¶~bHo$gHo$ n[aàoú¶‘|)

Doctrines of Pu¾tibhaktim¢rg :
Allegations, Conspiracy and Facts
(In the context of Maharaj Libel Case)

àH$meH$:
lrd„^mMm¶© Q´>ñQ>, ‘m§S>dr-H$ÀN>

àH$meH$:
lrd„^mMm¶© Q´>ñQ>, H§$gmam ~Oma, ‘m§S>dr-H$ÀN>&
Must Visit:
http://www.pushtimarg.net
http://vallabhacharyvidyapeeth.org/

gånmXH$:
Jmoñdm‘r ‘¡Ìr

boIH$:
eaX² Jmoñdm‘r, ‘¡Ìr Jmoñdm‘r, Ydb nQ>ob, à˶wf ‘h{f©
CËH$f© e‘m©, C‘§J {eamoX[a¶m, A‘r ^Å>

àH$meZdf©: {d.g§.2078
à{V: 500

‘wÐH$:
nydu àog àm.br., amOH$moQ>

îuhëgcpQpe® V²$õV$
îuhëgcpQpe® rhÛp‘uW$, aºgpcpC ‘pL®$, lpgp¡g, rS>.‘„Qdlpg
r‘“.389350. ap¡“ : 9428514130, 02676-225171

N°Þ\

âL$pi_klpe
‘yrô$dpN®“u âp’rdL$ kdS> dpV¡$

1. âh¡riL$p
g¡ML$ : Np¡õhpdu îuifv$¹Ly$dpÆ
(NyS>fpsu)
f. âh¡riL$p
g¡ML$ : Np¡õhpdu îuifv$¹Ly$dpÆ
(rlÞv$u)
3. Praveshika g¡ML$ : Np¡õhpdu îuifv$¹Ly$dpÆ
(A„N°¡Æ)
4. `yrô$âh¡i 1-f g¡ML$ : Np¡õhpdu îuifv$¹Ly$dpÆ
(NyS>fpsu)
5. `yrô$âh¡i 1-f g¡ML$ : Np¡õhpdu îuifv$¹Ly$dpÆ
(rlÞv$u)
6. `yrô$`\
g¡ML$ : Np¡õhpdu îuifv$¹Ly$dpÆ
(NyS>fpsu)
7. `yrô$`\
g¡ML$ : Np¡õhpdu îuifv$¹Ly$dpÆ
(rlÞv$u)
8. âd¡efÐ_k„N°l g¡ML$ : Np¡õhpdu îuifv$¹Ly$dpÆ
( NyS>. )
9. Manual of the devotionalpath of Pushti. g¡ML$ : D‘f dyS>b

10
10
10$
f0$
f0$
10
10
f0
65

sÒhv$$i®_rhjeL$ fpô²$ue k¡rd_pfdp„ âõsys \e¡g
rhrcÞ_ ip¡^`Óp¡ s\p QQp® _p¡ k„N°l
10. iåv$$M„X$uep rhÜÐ`qfQQp®
(k„õL©s-A„N°¡Æ-rlÞv$u)
11. AÞe¿eprshpv$uep rhÜÐk„Np¡›$u (k„õL©s -A„N°¡Æ-rlÞv$u)
1f. L$pe®L$pfZcphdudp„kp rhÜÐk„Np¡›$u (k„õL©s -A„N°¡Æ-rlÞv$u)
13. âÐenâdpZ rhÜÐk„Np¡›$u
(k„õL©s -A„N°¡Æ-rlÞv$u)
14. AÞ^L$pfhpv$$ rhÜÐk„Np¡¡›$u
(k„õL©s -A„N°¡Æ-rlÞv$u)
15. hëgch¡v$pÞs g¡ML$: Np¡.îuíepd d“p¡lfÆ(k„õL©s -A„N°¡Æ-rlÞv$u)

f00
150
f00
150
f00
r“:iyëL$

kpçâv$$preL$ rhQpfNp¡›$udp„ âõsys \e¡gp
rhrcÞ_ ip¡^`Óp¡ s\p s¡_p E`f \e¡g QQp® _y„ k„L$g_
16. hpsp®‘qfQQp®
17. Ar^L$pf`qfQQp®
18. kp^“pâZpgu
19. ‘yrô$c[¼sdp„ L$\pkp^_p rhQpfNp¡›$u
f0. ifZpNrs rhQpfNp¡›$u
f1. ifZpNrs rhQpfNp¡›$u (‘|fL$ âí“p¡Ñfu)
ff. k¡hp-kd`®Z;  rhQpfNp¡›$
f3. ‘yrô$c[¼s A“¡ â‘rÑ kp^“pdp„ S>OÞepr^L$pf rhQpfNp¡›$u
f4. ârsbÞ^ (‘yrô$c[¼s A“¡ â‘rÑ kp^“pdp„ ârsbÞ^)
f5. ‘yrô$c[¼s A“¡ â‘rÑ kp^“pdp„ am

r_Ðeõsp¡Ó`pW$

15
100
(Aâpàe) 50
(Aâpàe) 50
50
(Aâpàe)r“:iyëL$
50
80
100
100

f6. `yrô$`pW$phgu (NyS>fpsu) ‘pLy„$ bpIqX„$N
f7. `yrô$`pW$phgu (rlÞv$u) ‘pLy„$ bpIqX„$N
f8. `yrô$`pW$phgu (NyS>fpsu) L$pQy„$ bpIqX„$N
f9. `yrô$`pW$phgu (NyS>fpsu) L$pQy„ bpIqX„$N 4''.3'' “p“u kpCT
30. `yfyjp¡Ñdklö_pd-rÓrh^gugp_pdphgu (A_yhpv$$ krls)

f0
f0
f0
10
f0

AÝee_p¡`ep¡Nu N°Þ\p¡
31. îucpNhsdlp‘yfpZ (QpfcpN. dlpâcy îuhëgcpQpe® kçds A’®hpmy„) 400
3f. jp¡X$iN°Þ’. (kfm NyS>fpsu cphp’®-rhh¡Q“ kp’¡. ‘¡S> k„. f30)
Aâpàe
33. rS>_ îuhëgcê$` _ ÅÞep¡, Np¡.îuíepd d_p¡lfÆ rgrMs khp£Ñdõsp¡Ó_u
rhõs©s c|rdL$p_p¡ NyS>fpsu A_yhpv$, îuhëgcpô$L$, kàsígp¡L$u,îuhëgcõsp¡Óp¡,
`ÊQígp¡L$u, rinpígp¡L$u Apqv$$ N°Þ\p¡“y„ rhh¡Q_ 450\u h^y `p_pdp„k„L$g_ 70
34. L©$óZpîe, îuL$ëepZfpeÆ rgrMs k„õL©$s V$uL$p_p¡ NyS> A_yhpv$$(Aâpàe) 07
35. cNh•usp, A_yhpv$L$ : îu_p_ygpg Np„^u. `v$$ÃR>¡v$ , AÞhe, iåv$$`qfQe,
h©rÑ`qfQe, iåv$$p\®, ígp¡L$p\®, rhh¡Q_,`pv$$p_y¾$drZL$p, NuspspÐ`e® s\p
Þepkpv$¡irhhfZ NyS>fpsu A_yhpv$$ kp\¡.
50
36. ‘yrô$A[õdsp k„h^®L$ rirbf, fpô²$ue k„d¡g“-cê$Q (âí“p¡Ñfu)
f5
37. jp¡X$iN°Þ’Ns D‘v$¡ip¡ A“¡ s¡d“u 64 hpsp®Ap¡, g¡. c|‘¡ÞÖcpC cpV$uep 50
38. jp¡X$iN°Þ’Ns D‘v$¡ip¡ A“¡ s¡d“u f8 hpsp®Ap¡, g¡. D‘f dyS>b(Aâpàe) 50
39. cNh•usp“p¡p c[¼sep¡N, bpfdp¡ AÝepe, g¡ML$ : Np¡.îuíep.d.
r“:iyëL$
40. cNh•usp“p¡ ‘yfyjp¡Ñdep¡N, ‘„v$fdp¡ AÝepe, g¡ML$ :Np¡.îuíep.d.
r“:iyëL$
41. ÖìeiyqÙ. A‘fk-kysL$ bpbs“p¡ r“Z®e N°Þ’. g¡.: Np¡.îu‘yfyjp¡ÑdÆ r“:iyëL$
4f. cpNhs ip”-õL$Þ^-âL$fZ-AÝepe“p¡ A’®. g¡ML$: îu“p“ygpg Np„^u 10
43. îucpNhsp’®âL$fZ.(îuhëgcpQpe® frQs sÒhp’®v$u‘r“bÞ^pÞsN®s“y„ âL$fZ.
îud˜pNhs“p ip”-õL$Þ^-âL$fZ A“¡ AÝepe “p A’p£“y„ rhõs©s
rhh¡Q“.) A“yhpv$L$ : Np¡.hp.îu“p“ygpg Np„^u.
150
44. ip”p’®âL$fZ (îuhëgcpQpe® rhfrQs sÒhp’®v$u‘r“bÞ^dp„“y„ â’d âL$fZ.
îu‘yfyjp¡ÑdÆ“u AphfZc„N V$uL$p“p NyS>fpsu A“yhpv$ kp’¡)
30
45. ‘yfyjp¡Ñd ârs›$pâL$pf (îuNykp„CÆ frQs k¡ìe õhê$‘“¡ ‘yô$ L$fphhp“u
rhr^“y„ rhõs©s NyS>fpsu rhh¡Q“)g¡:Np¡.îuíepdd“p¡lfÆ
r“:iyëL$
46. N©lk¡hp A“¡ h°S>gugp, ìep¿epsp Np¡. îuíepd d“p¡lfÆ
r“:iyëL$
47. ‘yrô$âhpldep®v$pc¡v$, ìep¿epsp Np¡. îuíepd d“p¡lfÆ
Aâpàe
48. îuL©$óZQqfÓ (v$idõL$Þ^“p¡ kfm NyS>fpsu cphp“yhpv$)
A“yhpv$L$ : Np¡.hp.îu“p“ygpg Np„^u
Aâpàe
49. fk×rô$“u sfa¡Zdp„. g¡ML$ : Np¡. îuíepd d“p¡lfÆ
Aâpàe
50. rkÙpÞs“y„ ApQd“ âí“p¡Ñfu. DÑfv$psp : Np¡. îuíepd d“p¡lfÆ
r“:iyëL$
51. c[¼shr^®“u. ìep¿epsp : Np¡. îuíepd d“p¡lfÆ
Aâpàe-r“:iyëL$
5f. k¡hp : F>sy-DÐkh-d“p¡f’. ìep¿epsp : Np¡. îuíepd d“p¡lfÆ
r“:iyëL$

53. ldLy„$ Bs“u kdS> cgu (Ad©shQ“phgu)âpQu“ Ahp®Qu“ Ap^yr“L$
ApQpep£“p hQ“pd©sp¡
r“:iyëL$
54. sÒhp’v$u‘r“bÞ^pÞsN®s kp^“âL$fZ. d|m krls NyS>fpsu A“yhpv$ r“:iyëL$
55. ‘yfyjp’®ìehõ’p. âh¼sp : Np¡.îuíepd d“p¡lfÆ
r“:iyëL$
56.nw{ï>{dYmZ_²-f (ì`mH$aU_²) lrdëb^mMm`©-lrJmonrZmWOr-lrJwgm§B©Or
a{MV f6J«ÝWm|H$m nXÀN>oX-AÝd`-eãXn[aM`-d¥{Îmn[aM`
100
57.nw{ï>{dYmZ_²-3(d«O^mfm) lrdëb^mMm`©-lrJmonrZmWOr-lrJwgm§B©Or
a{MV f6J«ÝWm|H$m eãXmW©-íbmoH$mW©-{ddoMZ-nmXmZwH«$_{UH$m
150
58.VÎdmW©Xrn{Z~ÝYmÝVJ©V emómW©àH$aU_², (d«O^mfmQ>rH$m)
lrdëb^mMm`© {da{MV, nona~oH$/hmS>©~mC§S
50/70
59.VÎdmW©Xrn{Z~ÝYmÝVJ©V gd©{ZU©`àH$aU_² (d«O^mfmQ>rH$m)
lrdëb^mMm`© {da{MV, nona~oH$/hmS>©~mC§S
80/100
60.{ddoH$Ì`_², ànÄM-Ord-_ybê$n (g§ñH¥$V)
10
61.lrnwéfmoÎm‘J«ÝWmdbr - 5 (v$iqv$NÞsrhS>eu Np¡.îu‘yfyjp¡ÑdÆ frQs
ÖìeiyqÙv$ur‘L$p, c[¼sdpN}e A‘fp^r“ê$‘Zrhh©rs s¡dS> DÐkhâsp“ d|m
N°Þ’p¡ s¡dS> s¡“p¡ h°S>cpjp-rlÞv$u-NyS>fpsu A“yhpv$)
100
6f.lrnwéfmoÎm‘J«ÝWmdbr - 6 (v$iqv$NÞsrhS>eu Np¡.îu‘yfyjp¡ÑdÆ frQs
D‘r“jv$p¡, cNh•usp s’p Þepkpv$¡ispБe® “u k„õL©$s V$uL$p$)
f00

63.J¥hgodm Am¡a d«Obrbm(d«O^mfm)ì`m»`mV: Jmo.lrí`m_ _ZmohaOr
{ZŸ…ewëH$
64.^JdÒrVmH$m ^p³V¶moJ. ì`m»`mV: Jmo.lrí`m_ _ZmohaOr
{ZŸ…ewëH$
65. godm : F$Vw-CËgd-_ZmoaW, {ddoMH$ : Jmo.lrí`m_ _ZmohaOr
{Z…ewëH$
66. godmH$m¡_wXr (ZdYm^pŠV), {hÝXr,boIH$ : lrbmby^Q²>Q>Or,
ì`m»`mVm : Jmo.lrí`m_ _ZmohaOr
Aàmß`-{Z…ewëH$
67. ~«÷dmX ({hÝXr) boIH$ : Jmo.lrí`m_ _ZmohaOr
{Z…ewëH$

B[slpk
68. Ap^yr_L$ ÞepeâZpgu A_¡ `yrô$dpN}e kp^_pâZpgu _p¡ Ap`ku V$L$fph,
g¡. : Np¡. îuíepd d_p¡lfÆ (NyS>fpsu)
q_:iyëL$
69. Ap^yr_L$ ÞepeâZpgu A_¡ `yrô$dpN}e kp^_pâZpgu _p¡ Ap`ku V$L$fph,
g¡. : Np¡. îuíepd d_p¡lfÆ (rlÞv$u)
q_:iyëL$
70. îuNp¡`u_p\âcyQfZ; îuNp¡`u_p\Æ_p rhjedp„ D`gå^ (rQÓÆ,
lõspnf, `v$$, Brslpk, fQ_p hN¡f¡) sdpd dprlqs_p¡ k„N°l.
f5

kÞv$c® N°Þ’p¡
71. ‘yrô$rh^p“d¹ ‘pv$p“y¾$drZL$p. îuhëgcpQpe®-îuN‘u“p’Æ-îuNykp„CÆ
frQs f6 N°Þ’p¢“$u ‘pv$p“y¾$drZL$p
10
7f. ldLy„$ Bs“u kdS> cgu. A¡L$ hpf hp„Qhp S>¡hy„. âpQu“-Ahp®Qu“-Ap^yr“L$

ApQpep£“p dprd®L$ hQ“pd©sp¡“p¡ krQÓ k„N°l.

r“:iyëL$

73. Summary of Shuddhadvaita Vangmaya. boIH$ : Jmo.eaX²
(dy„bC eyr“hrk®V$u“p¡ Aæepk N°Þ’) îudlpâcyÆ, îuNp¡‘u“p’Æ s’p
îuNykp„CÆ“p N°Þ’p¡“p¡ A„N°¡Ædp„ Vy„$L$ ‘qfQe.

15

îucpNhskybp¡r^“u“y„ îu“p“ygpg Np„^uA¡ L$f¡g cpjpÞsf:
â’dõL$Þ^
100
qÜsueõL$Þ^
100
s©sueõL$Þ^ (b¡ cpNdp„)
400
v$idõL$Þ^ S>ÞdâL$fZ
150
spdk âdpZ âL$fZ
125
spdk âd¡e âL$fZ
125
spdk kp^“-am âL$fZ
200
fpS>k âdpZ-âd¡e âL$fZ
200
Np¡ipmp : drlgpbpN ‘pk¡, dp„X$hu-L$ÃR> s’p îuhëgcpQpe® rhÛp‘uW$dp„, lpgp¡g.
ÆZp£Ùpf : îubpgL©$óZÆ“p b¡W$L$Æ. Npd : thÅZ, sp.AbX$pkp-L$ÃR>

îuhëgcpQpe® rhÛp`uW$ :
îuhëgcpQpe® “Nf, f¡afg lp¡[õ‘V$g ‘pR>m, lpgp¡g, rS>. ‘„Qdlpg.
AÝee_p¡`ep¡Nu N°Þ\pge, AÝee_L$n, r_hpk, cp¡S>_, AÝep`L$ hN¡f¡
AÐephíeL$ kyrh^pAp¡\u kykÄS>.
`yrô$õhpÝepe : AW$hpX$uep_p gNcN b^p qv$hk Apbpg-h©Ù b^p `yrô$dpN}Ap¡ dpV¡$
kçâv$pe_p d|m N°Þ\p¡_y„ AÝep`_ rhÜp_¹ ApQpe®h„iÅ¡ Üpfp V¡$rgap¡r_L$ L$p¡ÞafÞk¹
dpÝed\u L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡ : h^y dprlrs dpV¡$ ap¡_ kç`L®$ : 9426623565
"‘yrô$rhÛp' dp¡bpBg A¡[àgL¡$i“
ìlp¡V¹$k¡‘ Üpfp rhÛp‘uW$ s’p ‘yrô$dpN® k„b„^u dlÒh‘|Z® ÅZL$pfu âpá L$fhp dpV¡$
kç‘L®$ L$fp¡: 942662356
e|V$é|bdp„ âhQ“p¢ kp„cmhp l¡sy "‘yrô$õhpÝepe' Q¡“g kåõ¾$pBb Ahíe L$fp¡!

Jmoñdm_r lrí`m_ _ZmohaOrÛmam gånm{XV-nwZ_w©{ÐV

ewÕmÛ¡V nw{ï>^pŠV gåàXm`Ho$ _yb g§ñH¥$V J«ÝW
1.Ÿgì`m»`fmoS>eJ«ÝW g§`wŠVàH$meZ, Xwb©^
I§S> 1.Ÿlr`_wZmï>H$_² go {gÕmÝVahñ`_²
I§S> 3.ŸOb^oX… go godm\$b_²
f.ŸàH$me-apí_ g{hV ~«÷gyÌmUw^mî`_²
ZmWÛmam Q>oånb~moS>©, A{VXwb©^
I§S> 1.ŸàW_mÜ`m`

I§S> f.ŸZdaËZ_² go ^pŠVd{Y©Zr
I§S> f.ŸàW_mÜ`m`

ZmWÛmam Q>oånb~moS>©, A{VXwb©^

I§S> 3.Ÿ{ÛVr`mÜ`m`
I§S> 4.ŸV¥Vr`mÜ`m`
I§S> 5.ŸMVwWm©Ü`m`
3.Ÿlr_X²^mJdVgw~mo{YZr
I§S> 1.ŸàW_-{ÛVr`ñH$ÝY
I§S> 4.ŸOÝ_àH$aU
I§S> 5.ŸVm_gà_mUàH$aU
I§S> 6.ŸVm_gà_o`-gmYZàH$aU
I§S> 7.ŸVm_g\$bàH$aU
I§S> 8.ŸamOgà_mU-à_o`àH$aU
I§S> 9.amOggmYZ-’$bàH$aU I§S> 10.gmpÎdH$à‘o¶gmYZ’$bàH$aU
I§S> 11. JwUàH$aU VWm ¶mdËàm߶ EH$mXeñH$ÝY
4.ŸVÎdmW©Xrn{Z~ÝY
I§S> 1.ŸemómW©-gd©{ZU©`àH$aU
I§S> f.Ÿ^mJdVmW©àH$aU ñH$ÝY 1-5
I§S> 3.Ÿ^mJdVmW©g§à`wŠH$aU
ñH$ÝY 6-1f
VàH$meZ, Xwb^©
5.Ÿgì`m»`fS²>J«ÝWm…
6. doXmÝVm{YH$aU_mbm-^mdàH$m{eH$m
7. {d{dY{ddaUmonoV nÌmdbå~Z_²
8. àñWmZaËZmH$a
9. {dÛÝ_ÊS>Z_²
10. lr~mbH¥$îUJ«ÝWmdbr
11. lrdëb^‘hmà^wñVmoÌm{U
1f. lrnwéfmoÎm_à{Vð>màH$ma…
13. dëb^m»¶mZJwOamVr,
(gáQ>
rH$monoV)
d«O VWm g§ñH¥$V g§ñH$aU
14. nw{ï>{dYmZ_²
15. dmXmdbr
~÷
« dmX, dmXH$Wm, {dJh«dmX, ànM
§ dmX, ànM
§ gg§ma^XodmX, ~÷
« OrdVX³¡¶ñdê$n{Zê$nU‘,²
{déÕY‘ml©¶Ëd{ddM
o Z‘,² AmË‘dmX…, àíZmÎomagmhòrn¶mb
© mM
o Z‘,² àíZmÎomagmhòrM{MV©àH¥$˶{YH$aU-g‘mbmoMZ‘², Ho$dbmÛ¡VdmXm{^‘Vm{dÚmñdê$n{d‘e©…, AjanwéfmoÎm‘ÛV¡{ZamgdmX…

16. AdVmadmXmdbr
I§S>f.Ÿ^oXm^oXdmX,g¥{ï>^oXdmX,Am{d^m©d{Vamo^mddmX,»`m{VdmX,à{V{~å~dmX,
AÝYH$madmX.
I§S> 3. ~«m÷UËdm{XXodVmdmX…, Ordì`mnH$ËdIÊS>ZdmX, Ordà{V{~å~Ëd-IÊS>ZdmX…,
^mJdVñdê$n{df`H$e§H$>m{ZamgdmX…,CnXoem{X{df`H$e§H$>m{ZamgdmX Am{X..

17. gpËgÕmÝV‘mV©ÊS>:. ^maV‘mV©ÊS>-nÄMZXr lrJmodY©Z(JÅx>bmb)e‘m© {da{MV.
18. doXmÝV{MÝVm‘Ur. ^maV‘mV©ÊS>-nÄMZXr lrJmodY©Z(JÅx>bmb)e‘m© {da{MV.
4H«$.1, f VWm 4/1, 4/f H$mo N>moS> H$a g^r J«ÝW lrdëb{dÚmnrR>-lr{dQ²R>boída-à^wMaU Am.hmo.Q´>ñQ
(H$moëhmnwa) Ûmam àH$m{eV.

19. lr‘Ëà^wMaUH¥$VJ«ÝWm…

20. ñVmoÌ{dkᶅ

Jmoñdm‘r lrí¶m‘‘ZmohaOr Ûmam [hÝXr Ed§ JwOamVr‘| àH$m{eV Aݶ J«§W
- d„^doXmÝV {Z~ÝYg§J«h ([hÝXr)

- nw{ï>àdmh‘¶m©Xm^oX (JwOamVr)

- {ddoH$ ({hÝXr)
- {demoY{ZH$m(Mma I§S>) (JwOamOr-{hÝXr)
- nwéfmoÎm‘¶moJ (JwOamVr-{hÝXr)
- ZdaËZ‘² (JwOamVr-{hÝXr)
- lr¶‘wZmï>H$‘² ({hÝXr)
- {gÕmÝVZw§ AmM‘Z (JwOamVr)
- {gÕmÝVgy{º$ (JwOamVr)
- ^JdÒrVmgw ^{º$¶moJ
- dmVm©Z²H$s g¡ÕmpÝVH$ g§J{V
- nwéfmW©ì¶dñWm ({hÝXr-JwOamVr-A§J«oOr)
- MVw…íbmoH$s ({hÝXr)
- agÑ{ï>Zr Va’o$U‘m§ (JwOamVr-{hÝXr)
- J¥hgodm Am¡a d«Obrbm (JwOamVr-{hÝXr) - ~«÷dmX (dmXmdbr gånmXH$s¶)
- godmH$m¡‘wXr/ZdYm^{º$ ({hÝXr)
- {MaHw$Q> MMm© g‘rjm (JwOamVr-{hÝXr)
- nw{ï>‘mJu¶ nrR>mYre ñdê$n Am¡a H$V©ì¶ - nw[ï>‘mJ©H$s AmMm¶©Ì¶r ({hÝXr)
- A‘¥VH$m AmM‘Z (JwOamVr-{hÝXr) - AUw^mî¶ (gmYZ’$bmܶm¶) ^y{‘H$m (JwOamVr)
- ZdamoËnXoeH$m ‘mZg{díbofU (JwOamVr-{hÝXr)
- A‘¥VdMZmdbr ({hÝXr-JwOamVr)
- {gÕm§VdMZmdbr (JwOamVr)
- AUw^mî¶ g§{jámZwH«$‘{UH$m (g§ñH¥$V) - {OZ lrd„^ ê$n Z Omݶmo (JwOamVr)
- lrd„^mMm¶©Ho$ Xe©ZH$m ¶WmW© ñdê$n
- eaUmJ{V {dMmaJmoð>r: EH$ nyaH$ àíZmoÎmar (JwOamVr)
- Y‘©-AW©-H$m‘-‘mojH$s nw{ï>‘mJu¶ {ddoMZm ({hÝXr-JwOamVr)
- ^JdËgodmZmo {gÕmÝVewÕ àH$ma: EH$ àíZmoÎmar (JwOamVr)
- gmH$ma~«÷dmX (VÎd{MÝVZ, ^{º$ Am¡a g§ñH¥${V {d‘e©) {hÝXr)
- VÎdmW©Xrn{Z~ÝYmÝVJ©V emómW©àH$aUmonH«$‘ (JwOamVr)
- VÎdmW©Xrn{Z~ÝYmÝVJ©V g§{já emómW©-gd©{ZU©¶àH$aU VWm {ddoH$Y¡¶m©l¶, ZdaËZ,
{gÕmÝV‘wº$mdbr Ed§ ^{º$d{Y©ZrH$m JwOamVr AZwdmX-{ddoMZ (JwOamVr)
- lrd„^m»¶mZ: lr‘ØmJdVH$mo àmê$n Am¡a lrd„^m»¶mZ
- nw{ï>^{º$H$m ì¶mnmarH$aU (Hw$e§H$m,{IbdmS>-g‘mYmZ) ({hÝXr)
- ~«m{÷H$ ¶mWm϶© Am¡a ~«÷dmXH$s ZmZmdmXmZwamo{YVm (bKwJ«ÝWg§J«h-2)
- lr‘ØJdÒrVmܶm¶à{VnmÚg§jon (g§ñH¥$V)
- dmVm©{ddoMZm (lrXm‘moXaXmg hagmZrOr Ed§ lrH¥$îUXmg ‘oKZ) ({hÝXr)
- dmVm©{ddoMZm (lramUmì¶mgH$s dmVm©) ({hÝXr)
- bKwJ«§Wg§J«h-1 (g§ñH¥$V)
- Ah§H$ma‘r‘m§gm (1-2) ({hÝXr)
- H¥$îU Ed VmËn¶©‘² (d«O^mfm-JwOamVr)- fmoS>eJ«§W n[aM¶ (JwOamVr)
- dMZm‘¥Vg§H$bZ (g§ñH¥$V-{hÝXr) - gy{º$̶: {gÕmÝV, CËgd, ^{º$.
-AmYw{ZH$ ݶm¶àUmbr Ed§ nw{ï>‘mJu¶ gmYZmàUmbrH$m Amngr Q>H$amd ({hÝXr, JwO)
- ZbHy$~a‘{UJ«rdñVw{V (gw~mo{YZr Ed§ {ddoMZ g‘oV) ({hÝXr)
- JmonrJrV (gw~mo{YZr Ed§ {ddoMZ g‘oV) ([hÝXr)
gånH©$: Jmoñdm‘r lrí¶m‘‘ZmohaOr, "d«OH$‘b', 63-ñdpñVH$ gmogmBQ>r, 4Wm amñVm, Owhþ ñH$s‘,
{dbonmb} (npíM‘) ‘w§~B©&

&&lrh[a…&&
&&lr‘XmMm¶©MaUH$‘boä¶mo Z‘…&&

gånmXH$s¶
AkmZ{V{‘amÝYñ¶ kmZmÄOZebmH$¶m&
MjwéÝ‘r{bV§ ¶oZ Vñ‘¡ lrJwado Z‘…&&
àñVwV "nw{ï>^{º$H$m g¡Õm§{VH$ ñdê$n: Hw$e§H$m, {IbdmS> Ed§ g‘mYmZ'
J«§W ‘hmà^w Ûmam àH${Q>V nw{ï>^{º$gåàXm¶Ho$ H${Vn¶ à‘wI {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ D$na
‘hmamO bm¶~bHo$g AÝVJ©V gwYmamdm{X¶m| Ûmam CR>mE JE Amjonm|Ho$ g‘w{MV
CÎmaHo$ ê$n‘| {bIm J¶m h¡. EH$‘mÌ à¶moOZ {dewÕ {gÕm§VH$s àñVw{V Ed§
An{gÕm§VH$m IÊS>Z H$aZm hr h¡. àñVwV J«§W Amjonm|H$m g¡Õm§{VH$ {d‘e©
hmoZogo g§nyU© {df¶Ho$ Eo{Vhm{gH$, gm‘m{OH$, ‘wH$X‘oHo$ Xm¡amZ AXmbV‘| hþB©
MMm©, Amjon Ed§ à˶mjonm|Ho$ gÝX^©‘| nw{ï>^{º$gåàXm¶Ho$ {gÕm§Vm|H$m MVw‘w©Ir
AdbmoH$Z H$aVo hþE {bIm J¶m h¡.
àñVwV {df¶Ho$ {d‘e©H$m hoVw {H$gr ^r ì¶{º$ AWdm g‘wXm¶H$s
Ìw{Q>H$mo B§{JV H$aZm Zht h¡ A{nVw Ano{jV à˶wÎma Z XoZoHo$ H$maU Ed§
OmZ~yPH$a ¶m {’$a AkmZVmde AmMm¶©dJ© Ed§ AZw¶m¶rdJ© Ûmam hmoVo AmE
{gÕm§V{dnarV AmMaUde gånyU© ‘mJ©Ho$ {Xì¶ {gÕm§Vm|H$mo qZXmH$m nmÌ ~ZZogo
~MmZm ‘mÌ h¡.
nw{ï>^{º$gåàXm¶H$m àdV©Z ‘hmà^wZo H¥$îUàm{á hoVw à¶ËZerb
à˶oH$ nw{ï>OrdHo$ {bE {H$¶m h¡ {Og‘| d§eO Ed§ {eî¶dJ© XmoZm| hr ~am~aHo$
{hñgoXma h¢. AmMm¶©d§eOm|H$m Am¡ag d§eOËd h¡ Vmo {eî¶dJ©H$m AZm¡ag Ed§
^mdZmË‘H$ d§eOËd {gÕ hr h¡. JwéHo$ {bE Hw$bmoØdVmê$nr Ah§H$ma
^{º$‘mJ©‘| VËna hmoZo‘| g~go ~S>m ~mYH$ VÎd h¡ ³¶m|{H$ Hw$bmoØdVmê$nr ¶e
OÝ‘ AmYm[aV Z hmoH$a H$‘© Ed§ H$V©ì¶ nam¶U AmYm[aV hmoZm Mm{hE;$JwéHo$
{bE ^r JwéËd Ed§ d§eOËdgo A{YH$ d¡îUdËdH$s ‘w»¶Vm hmoZr Mm{hE. VW¡d
gåàXm¶Ho$ {eî¶dJ© hoVw ^r H$V©ì¶m|Ho$ à{V A˶{YH$ g‘n©U^md Ed§ à‘mU‘¶
ì¶{º$Ëd hr {eî¶ËdH$m H$maH$ h¡. AVEd XmoZm| hr dJm]Ho$ {bE
H$V©ì¶nam¶UVmH$s hr ‘w»¶Vm h¡ Z{H$ Am¡a A{YH$ YZYmݶg{hV Eoíd¶©‘¶

OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aZoH$s gm‘§VdmXr ì¶dñWmH$m AKmo{fV à‘mUnÌ. AVEd
gmåàXm{¶H$ Jwé-[eî¶H$s àUmbr‘| XmoZm| hr ~am~aHo$ {hñgoXma hmoZogo
gmåàXm{¶H$ {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ AZwnmbZ, g§ajU, g§dY©Z, AZwZ¶Z Ed§ nR>ZnmR>ZHo$ H$V©ì¶Ho$ {Zdmh©H$ XmoZm| hr dJ© h¡§.
Cnamoº$ H$V©ì¶~moYgo hr àñVwV J«§WHo$ boIH$m|Zo Ed§ gånmXH$V¶m ‘¡Z|
^r h‘mar ñdën‘{V Ed§ ‘mJu¶ {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ ñdënkmZ Ûmam {gÕm§Vm|H$s {dewÕVm
Ed§ gdm}n[aVmH$mo àñVwV H$aZoH$m à¶mg {H$¶m h¡. ¶Ú{n Y‘u nyU©nwéfmoÎm‘
^JdmZH$s hr H¥$nm~bgo àH$Q> hþAm ‘mJ© {XdmH$a ñdê$n h¡ {OgHo$ D$na gy¶©Ho$
hr ghmao àH$Q> hþE ~mXbm|Ho$ nrN>o ¶{X jU^aHo$ {bE gy¶© Nw>n ^r OmE Vmo ^r
gy¶©H$s ñdàH$mí¶‘mZVm àH$m{eV hmoZo hoVw {H$grH$s ‘mohVmO Zht hmoVr!
àñVwV {df¶Ho$ Eo{Vhm{gH$ njH$m AmboIZ lrà˶wf ‘h{f© Ed§
lrCËH$f© e‘m©Zo {H$¶m h¡. Z¡¶m{¶H$ à{H«$¶m Ed§ VËg§~§Yr {d‘e© lrC‘§J
[eamoX[a¶m Ed§ lr‘{V A‘r ^Å> Zo {bIm h¡. VËH$mbrZ nw{ï>‘mJ©H$s pñW{V Ed§
nydm©Mm¶m] Ûmam {da{MV J«§Wm|Ho$ AmYmana g¡Õm§{VH$ njH$m {dMma lrYdb
nQ>ob Ed§ ‘¡Zo h‘mar ñdën ‘{V AZwgma {H$¶m h¡. n[a{eï>‘| {df¶g§~§Yr
nydm©Mm¶m]Ho$ A‘¥VdMZm|H$m g§H$bZ VWm J«ÝWmong§hmaH$m boIZ ‘oao {nV¥MaU
nyÁ¶ lreaX²Hw$‘ma(‘m§S>dr-hmbmob) Jmoñdm‘rZo {H$¶m h¡. AÝV‘| àñVwV {df¶
g§~§Yr nyd©àH$m{eV à‘wI àmMrZ AmboIm|H$m g§H$bZ {H$¶m J¶m h¡.
‘mJu¶ J«§Wm|Ho$ Aܶ¶Z-àH$meZ Ed§ nR>Z-nmR>ZH$s bwá hþB©
àUm{bH$mH$mo nwZOu{dV H$aVo hþE nmIÊS>Y‘© àYmZ H${b¶wJ‘| nw{ï>{gÕm§Vm|H$s
{Xì¶VmH$mo nwZ…àH$m{eV H$aVo hþE {OZHo$ H¥$nm~bHo$ {~Zm ñdënkmZ àmá hmo
nmZm ^r g§^d Zht Wm Eogo Jwéd¶© ny.lrí¶m‘wH$mH$mOr Ed§ ‘oao {nV¥MaUHo$ à{V
g§nyU© H$m¶©H$mo ‘mJ©X[e©V H$aZo hoVw H¥$VkVm km{nV H$aVr hþ§. AVEd AÝVV… Vmo
àñVwV J«§W M{d©VH$m MdU©‘mÌ hmoZogo gwk nmR>H$dJ© Cnamoº$ {df¶‘| {H$gr ^r
àH$maHo$ AݶWm^mdH$m {dMma Z H$aVo hþE Ìw{Q> hmoZona H¥$n¶m {d{XV H$a|.
&&lrH¥$îUmn©U‘ñVw&&

g§dËgamoËgd 2078

Jmoñdm‘r ‘¡Ìr

nwamodmH²$
bm¶~b² Ho$gH$m CëboI nw{ï>‘mJu¶ Y‘©, Xe©Z, {MÌH$bm,
g§JrVH$bm B{Vhmg Am{X {H$gr ^r AH$mX{‘H$ dVw©bHo$ AmboIZ‘| EH$
An[ahm¶© Ym{‘©H$ AZwð>mZH$s Vah Cpëb{IV hmoVm h¡. AWm©V² nwZ… nwZ…
CÁOr{dV hmoVm hr ahVm h¡. h‘ nw{ï>‘mJu¶ AmMm¶©, Omo àm¶… gåàXm¶Ho$
‘m¡{bH$ {gÕmÝVJ«ÝWm|H$m ì¶dpñWV Aܶ¶Z {H$¶o hþdo hm| ¶m Z hmo§, N>moQ>o-‘moQ>o
{df¶‘|, AZoH$mZoH$ {ddmXmñnX ‘wX²Xm| na H$U©^oXr H$mobmhb H$aVo ahVo h¢, Bg
{df¶na H$mð>‘m¡Z godZ H$aboZo‘| Eogm ‘mZHo$ MbVo h¢ {H$ Bgo ^wbm {X¶m
Om¶oJm, ^wbmVm H$moB© Zht h¡ à˶wV ""‘m¡Z§ gå‘{VbjU‘²'' H$m Xþîà^md Jham
OmVm h¡!
Eogr pñW{V‘| EH$ Orgg H«$mB©ñQ> H$s Oê$aV h¡, Omo XþíM[aÌ doí¶m na
nËWa ‘maZo dmbm|H$mo AmJo ~‹T>H$a ¶h H$h nm¶o {H$ Adí¶ nw{ï>‘mJuAm| na
bm¶~bHo$gHo$ CëboIHo$ nËWa ‘maVo ahmo na nËWa dmohr ‘mao {OgHo$ Ym{‘©H$
¶m {díd{dÚm¶br¶ g§ñWm ¶m AmÝXmobZ‘| Bg VahHo$ EH$ ^r ñH¢$S>b Z hþdo hm|.
¶Ú{n bm¶~bHo$gHo$ à‘wI nmÌ H$agZXmgHo$ nyd© gh¶moJr H${d Z‘©X
Cggo AbJ n‹S> OmZoHo$ ~mX IwXHo$ AmboI ""‘mar hH$sH$V'' ‘| {Ogg²
H«$mB©ñQ>H$s Vah B©gmB© {‘íZarg²H$mo ¶h H$h nm¶o, naÝVw Xþ^m©½¶de nw{ï>gåàXm¶
AJ«Ur h‘ Y‘©Jwé H$ht Z H$ht O~ ñd¶§ ‘mJ©àdV©H$ AmMm¶m]Ho$ J«ÝWmo³V
{gÕmÝVm|go jwÐ ñdmW©de Am§I{‘Mm¡br IobZo‘| ì¶ñV hm| Vmo Xÿgao ‘mJm]Ho$
{gÕmÝV, B{Vhmg Am¡a hH$sH$V H$s OmZH$mar aIZoH$s ’w$agX² h‘| {‘b Z nmVr
hmo ¶h Vmo ñdm^m{dH$ hr h¡!
dV©‘mZ‘| H$ar~ gm¡-S>oT>gm¡ dfm]go boH$a AmOVH$ h‘mao ^rVa
"{nV¥ à d{V© V nWàMma-gw { dMmaH$…'' Jmo ñ dm‘r lr{dQ² > R > b ZmWOrH$s
AmZwd§{eH$VmH$m A{YH$m{YH$ Cn¶moJ-{d{Z¶moJ ^p³V‘mJu¶ ^JdËgodm,
^JdËH$Wm, d«O¶mÌmHo$ ì¶mdgm{¶H$ Hw$é{MnyU© AmS>å~anyU© àXe©Zm|Ho$

Am¶moOZ‘| hr {H«$¶mpÝdV hmoVm ahVm h¡. AV… bm¶~b Ho$g‘| C^mao J¶o h‘na
Amjonm|H$m g‘mYmZ-{ZamH$aU h‘mar Amoago ³¶m h¡ ¶m hmoZm Mm{h¶o Wm, h‘
àH$Q> Zht H$a nm¶o.
‘oao {b¶o AmË‘gÝVmof Am¡a AmË‘Jm¡ad H$m {df¶ h¡ {H$ {Mam¶wî‘Vr
gwlr ‘¡ÌrZo H${Vn¶ gh¶mo{JAm|Ho$ gmW bm¶~b²Ho$gHo$ Am{YH$m[aH$ CÎmaH$mo
àXmZ H$aZoHo$ H$V©ì¶Ho$$ à{V OmJê$H$Vm àH$Q> H$s h¡.
Jmoñdm‘r í¶m‘ ‘Zmoha
({H$eZJT>-nmbm©)

AZwH«$‘{UH$m
{df¶

n¥ð>

1. CnH«$‘
2. nyd©^y{‘H$m - ‘hmamO bm¶~²b Ho$g
3. VËH$mbrZ {~«{Q>eemgZ, B©gmB© {‘eZ[a¶m|H$m H$m¶©
Ed§ Y‘©n[ad©VZ
4. gm‘m{OH$ n[adV©ZH$m Xm¡a Ed§ H$agZXmg ‘ybOr VWm
H${d Z‘©X Ho$ D$na Am¶©g‘mOH$m à^md
5. nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$m AmYw{ZH$ ݶm¶àUmbrHo$ n[aàoú¶‘|
à{V{Z{YËd
6. Y‘©{Zanoj ݶm¶mb¶‘| gmåàXm{¶H$ {gÕm§Vm|H$s MMm©
7. nw{ï>gåàXm¶Ho$ {gÕm§Vm|H$m ^«m§{V‘ybH$ VmËn¶©{dMma
Ed§ VËgmnoj {gÕmÝV{dMma
8. A‘¥VdMZmdbr
9. nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$s VËH$mbrZ pñW{V VWm ñd‘mJu¶ J«§Wm|H$m
àH$meZ
10.Cng§hma

01
18

Authors' note

n[a{eï>
- ‘hmamO bm¶~bHo$gHo$ {df¶‘| {bIo JE H${Vn¶ à‘wI
àH$m{eV AmboI Ed§ {dMmam|H$m g§H$bZ

25
34
48
72
88
129
160
168
178
182

&& CnH«$‘ &&
(ԤJbmMaU)
d¥ÝXmaÊd{ZHw$ÄO‘ÄOw^dZo X¡Xr߶‘mZ§ gXm
^³Ë¶mñdmÚbgX²ag¡H$gXZ§ go춧 gXm gÁOZ¡…&&
doXmÝV¡H${dMmadoÚ‘‘b§ JmonrOZmZÝXH¥$V²
^³VmZm§ ^¶^ÄOZ§ ^¶ha§ ^춧 ‘hmo ^md¶o&&
(àm^ÄOZ….1)
Z¥Um§ ¶o ì¶m‘moh§ ‘{WV‘V¶mo hÝV ¶V¶mo
dhÝVo dm½Omb¡O©J{V H${bH$mb¡{YV~b¡…&&
g‘ñVm… àmoXñVmñV Bh ghgm V¡{d©^wda¡d©¶§
Hw$‘©ñVofm§ dM{g nwZamhmonwé{fH$m‘²&&
gËnjnm{VZmo h§gm ZyZ§ ZmbrH$d„^m…
JwU§ J¥†rV ‘m Xmof§ Zraja{ddo{H$Z…&&
(‘méVe{º$….7-8)

H$moB© ^r ‘mJ© EH$ ZXrHo$ g‘mZ hmoVm h¡, {OgH$m EH$ ‘ybómoV hmoVm h¡
VWm H$mbH«$‘‘| Aݶ ZXrAm|H$m àdmh ^r Bg ‘ybàdmhHo$ gmW {‘b OmVm h¡.
Cgr àH$ma nw{ï>‘mJ©‘| ^r ‘ybómoV g‘mZ AmMm¶©Ì¶rHo$ ‘ybJ«§W, à‘mUdm³¶,
gmåàXm{¶H$ {gÕm§VàUmbr VWm Xe©Z h¡§. ‘ybómoVHo$ gyÌYma ‘ybmMm¶© hmoVo h¢
Omo {H$ nw{ï>‘mJ‘o| ‘hmà^w lrd„^mMm¶©, lrJmonrZmWOr Ed§ lr{dÇ>bZmW
à^wMaU h¢. O¡go ZXrHo$ ‘ybómoVHo$ gmW H$mbH«$‘‘| Aݶ Z{X¶m|Ho$ àdmh
{‘{lV hmo OmZona ZXr AnZo ‘yb ñdê$ngo {^Þ hr ñdê$n YmaU H$a boVr h¡,
Cgr àH$ma nw{ï>gåàXm¶‘| ^r H$mbH«$‘‘| ~XbVo Xoe-H$mbHo$ à^mdde AZoH$
n[adV©Z AmE. Bg n[adV©ZHo$ Xm¡a‘| H$moB ^r ‘mJ© ¶{X AnZo ‘ybñdê$nH$mo
¶WmdV² g§^mbZo‘| à¶mgaV Z hmo Vmo ‘mJ© ñd¶§ hr CpÀN>Þ hmo OmVm h¡. {H$gr ^r
‘mJ©H$s ajm V^r g§^d h¡ O~ ‘mJ©ñW àdmgr/AZw¶m¶r VWm ‘mJ©ajH$/ JwéCnXoï>m dJ© ñd‘mJu¶ {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ à{V AXå¶ {Zð>m aIVo hm|. ‘mJ©Ho$ ‘yb {gÕm§Vm|
Ed§ CZ {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ AmMaUnj‘| n[adV©Z Am OmZona ‘mJ©H$m ‘ybñdê$n hr Imo
OmVm h¡ VWm ‘mJ© AnZr nhMmZ ^r Imo ~¡R>Vm h¡. B{Vhmg‘| Ego n[adV©Z AZoH$
1

gåàXm¶m|‘| VWm Y‘m]‘| K{Q>V hþE hr h¢, O¡go ~m¡ÕY‘©‘| ^JdmZ ~wÕH$s BÀN>mHo$
{déÕ CZH$s ‘y{V©¶m|H$mo ~ZmZoH$m MbZ hþAm, Orgg H«$mBñQ> Ûmam AqhgmHo$
{gÕm§VH$m àdV©Z {H$¶o OmZoHo$ ~mdOyX ^r {díd‘| Xmo {díd¶wÕ ñd¶§ {H«$píM¶Z
~mhþ붶w³V Xoem|‘| hþE. Bg n[adV©ZHo$ Ymamàdmhgo ~mha Vmo nw{ï>gåàXm¶ ^r
Zht ah nm¶m h¡!
‘mJ©‘| AmVo n[adV©ZH$m ‘yb H$maU h¡ ‘mJ©ñW ‘Zwî¶! gmoH«o${Q>PZo
‘Zwî¶H$s ì¶m»¶m XoVo hþE H$hm h¡: Man is a social animal. VXþnam§V
E[añQ>moQ>bZo H$hm: Man is a rational animal. AmYw{ZH$ n[apñW{VHo$
n[aàoú¶‘| na§Vw Eogm H$hZo‘| A{Ve¶mo{º$ gd©Wm Zht h¡ {H$: Man is the
most unsocial animal. H$maU Cnamoº$ {dMmaH$m ¶h h¡ {H$ ~«÷m§S>Ho$ g^r
àmUr àH¥${V Ûmam àmá AnZo ñd^mdH$m {Zð>mnyd©H$ nmbZ H$aVo h¢; na§Vw EH$‘mÌ
‘Zwî¶ hr Eogm àmUr h¡ {H$ Omo gd©Wm nydm©Zw‘o¶ Zht h¡. AdH$me{dkmZ Eogm
H$hVm h¡ {H$ ~«÷m§S>‘| 80% S>mH©$ ’$m°{g©g h¢ VWm 20% ìhmBQ> ’$m°{g©g h¢. Bgr
{gÕm§VHo$ AZwgma ‘Zw| ^r 80% newËd Ed§ 20% ~m¡{ÕH$Vm ‘mZr hr Om
gH$Vr h¡. S>mH©$ ’$m°{g©g Ed§ ìhmBQ> ’$m°{g©gH$s hr Vah ‘Zw| AÝV{Z©{hV
newËd Ed§ ~m¡{ÕH$Vm {Za§Va g§Kf©aV ahVr h¢. ‘Zwî¶H$s newVmH$mo {Z¶§ÌU‘|
aIZo hoVw hr Y‘©H$s Amdí¶H$Vm h¡.
Y‘©Ho$ VrZ nj h¢: AZwð>o¶nj(Ritualistic Fascet), ^mdZmË‘H$nj
(Emotionalistic Fascet) VWm ~m¡{ÕH$nj (Rationalistic Fascet).
‘Zwî¶Ho$ ì¶{º$ËdHo$ ^r ¶o VrZm| hr nj hmoVo h¢ - ì¶mdhm[aH$nj,
^mdZmË‘H$nj Ed§ ~m¡{ÕH$nj. Cnamoº$ VrZm| hr njm|Ho$ g§¶mo{OV hmoZona hr
‘Zwî¶ Y‘m©MaU‘| àd¥Îm hmo nmVm h¡. ‘Zwî¶Ho$ ‘pñVîH$‘| ^mdZmË‘H$njH$m
g§MmbZ E{‘½S>mbm Ûmam {H$¶m OmVm h¡ Omo{H$ ‘Zwî¶~w{ÕH$m N>moQ>m {hñgm h¡;
~m¡{ÕH$njH$m g§MmbZ ~w{ÕH$m ’«$ÝQ>bbmo~ H$aVm h¡ Omo{H$ WmoS>m ~S>m {hñgm h¡
Ed§ ‘Zwî¶H$s E{Z‘{bQ>rH$m g§MmbZ ~w{ÕHo$ g~go ~S>o {hñgo Ûmam {H$¶m OmVm
h¡. AVEd ‘Zw| ñdm^m{dH$ê$ngo hr E{Z‘{b{Q>H$m(newËd) {hñgm {deof
à‘mU‘| hmoZoHo$ H$maU ^mdZmË‘H$nj Ed§ ~m¡{ÕH$njHo$ gmW {Za§Va Kf©U hmoVm
ahVm h¡. ‘Zwî¶Ho$ Bg ñd^mdHo$ H$maU Y‘m©MaU‘| {dH¥${V CËnÞ hmoVr h¡
{OgH$m Cn¶wº$ê$ngo g§MmbZ Z hmo nmZona Y‘©-gåàXm¶Ho$ ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|go
2

gd©Wm {dnarV AmMaU ‘Zwî¶ Ûmam hmo OmZoH$s nyar g§^mdZm ~Zr hr ahVr h¡.
na§Vw AZw¶m¶rdJ©Ho$ ì¶dhmam|‘| ‘Zwî¶ghO ñd^mdXmofHo$ H$maU CËnÞ hmoVr
{dH¥${V¶m|H$mo Ho$ÝБ| aIVo hþE g§nyU© gåàXm¶Ho$ ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$mo VWm àdV©H$
AmMm¶m]H$mo Xmofr Zht R>ham¶m Om gH$Vm h¡. gåàXm¶Ho$ ‘ybñdê$nHo$ kmZ hoVw
àdV©H$mMm¶m] Ûmam ñd‘wIoZ à{Vnm{XV {gÕm§V, gmYZmàUmbr Ed§ Xe©ZH$mo
bú¶‘| boZm hr ~w{Õ‘mZr h¡, Z {H$ AZw¶m¶rdJ© AWdm JwédJ©Ho$ AmMmaUH$mo.
CXmhaUV¶m {¼ñVrY‘©Ho$ Ho$Wmo{bH$MM©Ho$ {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ kmZ hoVw ¶{X JwéñWmZr¶
nmon Ebo³PoÝS>a-6Ho$ M[aÌH$m AmYma {b¶m OmE Vmo gd©Wm {dnarV {MÌ hr
CËnÞ hmoVm h¡; ³¶m|{H$ nmonHo$ M[aÌ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡:
Alexender is considered one of the most
controversial of the Renaissance popes, partly
because he acknowledged fathering several
children by his mistresses. As a result, his
italianized Valencian surname, Borgia; became a
byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are
traditionally considered as characterizing the
pontificate. (Eamn Duffy: A history of the Popes
(Yale Nota Bene, 2002 )

Cnamoº$ àH$mamZwgma hr ‘hmamO bmB~bHo$g‘| à{VdmXrAm|Zo
(H$agZXmg ‘yiOr VWm CZHo$ gmWrXmam|Zo) nw{ï>^{º$‘mJu¶ {gÕm§Vm|H$m
Aܶ¶Z gåàXm¶Ho$ àdV©H$mMm¶m] Ûmam {da{MV ‘ybJ«§Wm| Ûmam {H$¶o {~Zm hr
AZw¶m¶rdJ©‘| ì¶mdhm[aH$ê$ngo àM{bV OyR>r Ed§ Aà‘m{UV H$WmAm|‘|
{dídmg aIVo hþE {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ A¶mo½¶ AW©KQ>Z Ûmam gåàXm¶H$m EH$ {dnarV hr
{MÌ àñVwV {H$¶m Ed§ g‘Pm. VËH$mbrZ ݶm¶mb¶ Ûmam ^r {Zînj Ed§ VQ>ñW
hmoH$a g§àXm¶Ho$ ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$mo ܶmZ‘| aIo {~Zm hr g§nyU© ‘wH$X‘oH$m {ZU©¶
XoZo‘| Am¶m ³¶m|{H$ VËH$mbrZ ì¶dñWmZwgma {¼ñVrY‘© Ed§ Aݶ ^r {H$gr
Ym{‘©H${df¶H$s ݶm¶mb¶r¶ H$m¶©dmhr ‘mÌ Ep³b{g¶opñQ>H$b H$moQ>©‘|
({¼ñVrY‘©H$m Ym{‘©H$ ݶm¶mb¶) hr hmoZr Mm{hE. ¶{X Cnamoº$ {¼ñVr
na§namH$mo ܶmZ‘| aIm OmE, V~ Vmo nw{ï>gåàXm¶Ho$ {gÕm§V Ed§ ñdê$nHo$
{ZYm©aU hoVw hþB© H$m¶©dmhr‘| {g{dbH$moQ>©H$mo nw{ï>‘mJ©Ho$ ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$mo àñVwV
3

H$aZoH$s Amkm XoZr Mm{hE Wr.
Hw$»¶mV ‘hmamO bmB~bHo$g‘| à{VdmXrZo ‘hmà^w lrd„^mMm¶©Ho$ nm¡Ì
Ed§ lrJwgm§BOrHo$ MVwW© nwÌ lrJmoHw$bZmWOr Ûmam {da{MV {gÕm§Vahñ¶ J«§WH$s
Q>rH$mH$mo CÕ¥V H$aVo hþE A§J«oOr ^mdmZwdmX H$admH$a ~«÷g§~§Y‘§Ì‘| à{Vnm{XV
g‘n©UHo$ {gÕm§VH$m gd©Wm {dnarV Ed§ Kmoa qZXZr¶ AW© ݶm¶mb¶‘o§ Ed§
H$agZXmg ‘yiOr Ûmam {bIo OmVo ‘m{gH$nÌ‘| àñVwV {H$¶m. nw{ï>‘mJ©Ho$
doXm{Xemó{gÕ, gH$bemóm|Ho$ VmËn¶©ê$n {gÕm§Vm|H$mo O¡go {dH¥$Vñdê$n‘|
àñVwV {H$¶m J¶m; dh KQ>Zm A˶§V emoMZr¶ h¡. ‘hmà^w lrd„^mMm¶©H$m g‘J«
OrdZ H¥$îU^{º$go ¶wº$ Ed§ bm¡[H$H$ OJVgo d¡am½¶nyU© Wm. AmnHo$ Ûmam àH${Q>V
gåàXm¶Ho$ ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$m ñdê$n ^JdmZ lrH¥$îUHo$ à{V gd©ñdH$m g‘n©U Ed§
Ag‘{n©V g^r nXmWm]Ho$ à{V nyU© d¡am½¶dmZ² hmoZm hr h¡. nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$m ¶h
Xþ^m©½¶ Wm {H$ gåàXm¶Ho$ ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$mo VËH$mbrZ ݶm¶mb¶‘| àñVwV H$aZo hoVw
Cn¶wº$ à¶mg Zht {H$¶o JE VWm H$aZo {X¶o ^r Zht JE.
ݶm¶mb¶H$s à{H«$¶m‘| ‘w»¶V¶m AZw¶m¶rAm|H$s JdmhrH$mo à‘mUV¶m
ñdrH$maZo‘| AmB© VWm AZw¶m¶rdJ© Ed§ à{Vdm{X¶m|H$m nw{ï>‘mJu¶ {gÕm§Vm|Ho$
à{V AkmZ Ed§ Cnojm^md hmoZogo n[aUm‘de gmåàXm{¶H$ ‘yb{gÕm§V àñVwV hmo
hr Zht nmE. AZw¶m¶rdJ©H$m nw{ï>gåàXm¶ {df¶H$ AkmZ, Aܶ¶Z VWm
AܶmnZ‘| {e{WbVm Ed§ nw{ï>‘mJu¶ ‘ybJ«§W AàH$m{eV hmoZogo ݶm¶mb¶ VWm
à{VdmXr nyd©J«hgo J«ñV Wo. {~«{Q>eH$moQ>©, {~«{Q>e ݶm¶mYre VWm à{Vdm{X¶m|Ho$
D$na Am¶©g‘mO Ed§ VËH$mbrZ {~«{Q>eemgZ Ed§ {¼ñVr {‘eZarPgo à^m{dV
ݶm¶b¶‘| BÀN>m hmoZona ^r gåàXm¶Ho$ ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$mo àñVwV H$aZoH$s AZw‘{V
Zhr§ Xr JB©. {~«{Q>eemgH$m|H$m d¡{XH$Y‘©Ho$ à{V Ûof VWm Y‘©H$mo ‘ybgo hr Zï>
H$a XoZoH$s AmH$m§jmgo H$m¡Z AdJV Zht h¡! A{Ve¶ Ûof^md Vmo Cg ì¶dhma‘|
PbH$Vm h¡ {H$ O~ d¡{XH$Y‘© H¡$gm h¡, gåàXm¶ ³¶m hmoVo h¢ VWm Y‘©‘o§
Z¡{VH$VmH$m ñdê$n ³¶m h¡; BZ {df¶m|H$mo boH$a {dMma-{d‘e© Ed§ à‘mUV¶m
ñdrH$ma EH$ Eogo ì¶{º$Ho$ dMZm|H$m {H$¶m J¶m {H$ Omo ñd¶§ d¡{XH$Y‘©H$m
AZwgaU H$aVm hr Zht Wm Ed§ {OgZo d¡{XH$Y‘©emóm|H$m Aä¶mg ^r Zht {H$¶m
Wm VWm Omo ñd¶§ {Zð>mgo {¼ñVrY‘©H$m hr AZwgaU H$aZodmbm Wm! Eogm
ì¶dhma {H$g hXVH$ C{MV ‘mZm Om gH$Vm h¡? ݶm¶mb¶H$s VQ>ñWVmHo$ D$na
4

^r àíZ{M• bJZo ¶mo½¶ gd©Wm A¶mo½¶ ì¶dhma h¡!
‘hmamO bmB~bHo$gHo$ ‘w»¶ à{VdmXr H$agZXmg ‘yiOr VWm ghH$m¶©H$Vm©Am|H$m {~«{Q>e g§ñWmAm|Ho$ gmW g§~§Y Ed§ VËg§~§Yr {dMma J«§W‘|
{dñVmago {H$¶m J¶m h¡.
nw{ï>gåàXm¶ doX{gÕ h¡
"g˶àH$me' n{ÌH$m‘| H$agZXmg ‘yiOr Ûmam àH$Q> {H$¶o JE boI‘|
nw{ï>‘mJ© VWm lrd„^mMm¶©OrHo$ D$na ¶h Amjon {H$¶m J¶m Wm {H$
nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$s ñWmnZm 450 df© nyd© hr hþB© hmoZogo ¶h nmI§S>r Ed§ {dY‘u
gåàXm¶ h¡ ³¶m|{H$ nwamUm|‘| VWm Aݶ emóm|Ho$ AZwgma H${b¶wJ‘| àH$Q> hþE
g^r gåàXm¶ ‘mÌ nmI§S>‘VH$m hr àMma H$a|Jo!
Cnamoº$ Amjon gd©Wm ^«m§{V‘ybH$ h¡ ³¶m|{H$ boIH$Zo emóm|H$m
Aܶ¶Z {H$¶m hr Zht h¡ VWm emó{df¶H$ AkmZ Ed§ AݶWmkmZgo nyU© h¡.
boIH$ ñd¶§ hr ¶h ñdrH$maVm h¡ {H$ Cgo g§ñH¥$V^mfmH$m kmZ Zht h¡ VWm CZHo$
Ûmam {H$¶o JE Amjon emóà‘mUgo {gÕ hr Zht h¡!
nw{ï>‘mJ©H$s {Z˶Vm
"nw{ï>' eãXH$m AW© h¡ "AZwJ«h'. ~«÷‘| gm‘϶m©ZwnmVr AZwJ«h VWm
ñd^mdmZwnmVr AZwJ«h H$aZoH$s e{º$ gd©Xm {dÚ‘mZ h¡. O~ na~«÷ AnZr g^r
e{º$¶m|Ho$ gmW AnZo ^º$m|Ho$ D$na ñd^mdmZwnmVr AZwJ«h H$aZoH$s BÀN>mde
OJV‘| AdV[aV hmoVo h¢ V~ nw{ï>‘mJ©H$m Am{d^m©d hmoVm h¡. lrnwéfmoÎm‘Or Ûmam
{da{MV "brbm{Z˶ËddmX' AZwgma ^JdmZH$s brbm ^r {Z˶ h¡. ^º$m|Ho$
D$na ^JdmZH$m ¶h na‘ CËH¥$ï> AZwJ«h VWm H¥$nmH$s à{V{H«$¶mê$n ^º$ Ûmam
hmoVr gd©n[a‘mUr¶ Ed§ gd©^mdm[Ë‘H$m ^{º$H$m Zm‘ hr nw{ï>^{º$ h¡.
gåàXm¶ eãXH$s ì¶m»¶m XoVo hþE H$hm J¶m h¡: ""Bï>XodHo$ Zm‘‘§ÌH$s
XrjmHo$ XmZnyd©H$ Jwé-{eî¶H$s àUmbrgo Mbr AmVr Y‘©gmYZmH$s {d{eï>
na§namH$mo hr gåàXm¶ H$hVo h¢.'' Omo gåàXm¶ lw{V‘ybH$ h¢, do g^r AZm{X{gÕ
h¡§ ³¶m|{H$ doX ^r AZm{X{gÕ h¢. nw{ï>gåàXm¶ ^r doX{gÕ Ed§ lw{V‘ybH$ hmoZogo
AZm{X{gÕ hr h¡. lr‘hmà^wOrZo doX-JrVm-^mJdV Ed§ ~«÷gyÌm|‘| H$ho JE
{gÕm§Vm|H$mo hr gmåàVH$mbrZ ì¶dñWmHo$ AZwê$n ñdê$n àXmZ H$aVo hþE
nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$m ^JdX²BÀN>mde hr àdV©Z {H$¶m. gåàXm¶H$s AmMm¶©naånamHo$
5

AZwgma ^r ‘ybmMm¶© ^JdmZ nyU©nwéfmoÎm‘ lrH¥$îU hr h¢.
""AmXm¡ lrnwéfmoÎm‘§ nwaha§ lrZmaXm»¶§ ‘wqZ
H¥$îU§ ì¶mgJwé§ ewH§$ VXZw {dîUwñdm{‘Z§ Ðm{dS>‘².
VV² {e {H$b {~ëd‘“b‘² Ah§ dÝXo ‘hm¶mo{JZ§
lr‘Û„^Zm‘ Ym‘ M ^Oo Añ‘ËgåàXm¶m{Yn‘².''

lr‘hmà^wOr lr‘ØmJdVH$s gw~mo{YZr ì¶m»¶m‘| nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$mo
{ZJw©U ^{º$‘mJ© H$hVo h¢. AVEd gmåàXm{¶H$s ^{º$H$m ‘yb lr‘ØmJdV
‘hmnwamU h¡. ‘hmà^w Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""^oX… nma‘m{W©H$… B{V emó§ nwañH¥$˶ {Ì{dYmo ^{º$¶moJ… Cº$….
Vo M gmåàV§ {dîUwñdmå¶Zwgm[aU…, VÎddm{XZ…, am‘mZwOmíM B{V
V‘mo-aO…-gÎd¡… {^ÝZm…. Añ‘Ëà{Vnm{XVíM Z¡Jw©Ê¶…. Ed§
MVw{d©Ymo@{n ^JdVm à{Vnm{XV….'' (^mJ.nw.gw~mo.3&32&37)

H${b¶wJ‘| àH${Q>V g^r Y‘©-gåàXm¶m|Ho$ nmI§S>nyU© hmoZH$m Amjon A¶mo½¶ h¡
³¶m|{H$(1) Eogm ñdrH$mam OmZona ^JdËnmX e§H$a, ‘Üd, am‘mZwO, {Zå~mH©$,
{dîUwñdm‘r VWm Aݶ g^r g§àXm¶m|Ho$ AmMm¶m]H$m Am{d^m©d ^r H${b¶wJ‘|
hr hþAm h¡, AVEd CZHo$ ^r nmI§S>nyU© hmoZoH$m Adga àmá hmoJm; na§Vw ¶h
ì¶m{á ¶mo½¶ Zht h¡ ³¶m|{H$ Bggo emódMZm|H$m {damoY hmoVm h¡.
(2) ñd¶§ ^JdmZ lrH¥$îUHo$ dMZmZwgma H${b¶wJHo$ àW‘ Xg hOma df© n¶ªV
^º$m|H$s pñW{V ahoJr. AÚmd{Y dh Ad{Y nyU© Z hþB© hmoZogo ¶h Amjon
d¡îUd (^{º$) gåàXm¶m|Ho$ D$na Zht bJm¶m Om gH$Vm h¡.
(3) H${b¶wJ‘| {OZ nm§IS>Y‘m]H$m C„oI h¡§, do Eogo Y‘© h¢ {H$ Omo doXm{X
emóm|‘| {Zð>m Zht aIVo h¢. ^mJdV nwamUH$s H$m[aH$m 2&7&38H$s Q>rH$m‘|
gdm©Zw‘Vgo g^r AmMm¶m]H$m ¶hr {dYmZ h¡ {H$ nmI§S>nyU© hmoZoH$m {dYmZ
~m¡Õm{X‘V hoVw {H$¶m J¶m h¡.
dñVwV… Vmo nw{ï>‘mJ©H$m d¡{XH$Ëd gd©Wm {gÕ h¡ ³¶m|{H$ gmåàXm{¶H$
{gÕm§Vm|‘| lmoVì¶m{X (""AmË‘mdm@ao Ðï>춅 lmoVì¶mo ‘ÝVì¶mo {Z{Xܶm{gV춅..''
(~¥h.Cn.4&5&6)) lw{V‘| H$ho AZwgma ^{º$‘mJ©‘| ldUm{X Y‘m]H$m hr AZwð>mZ
{H$¶m OmVm h¡. AVEd ‘hmà^w ñd¶§ hr AnZo {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ doX{gÕ hmoZoH$m
6

{Zê$nU H$aVo hþE Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""doX‘mJ© {damoYoZ ¶ofm§ H$maU‘Êd{n.
Vo{h nmIpÊS>Zmoko¶m… emómW©-ËdoZ do{fU…''

(VËdmW©.Xr.{Z.2&284)
d¡{XH$ A{¾hmoÌm{X H$‘m]H$mo hr ñdY‘© ~VmVo hþE ‘hmà^w Amkm H$aVo
h¢ : ""ñdY‘m© A{¾hmoÌmX¶…'' (VËdmW©.Xr.{Z.à.2&238) Cnamoº$ à‘mUm|go ¶h
{gÕ hmoVm h¡ {H$ nw{ï>gåàXm¶ AZm{XH$mbgo {dÚ‘mZ hmoZogo "g˶àH$me'
n{ÌH$m‘| à{VdmXr Ûmam àñVwV {H$¶o JE g^r Amjon {‘϶m h¡.
nw{ï>‘mJ©‘| g‘n©U ‘mÌ nyU©nwéfmoÎm‘ ^JdmZ lrH¥$îUH$mo hr!
‘hmamO bmB~bHo$g‘| nw{ï>‘mJ©Ho$ D$na ¶h Amjon bJm¶m J¶m {H$
nw{ï>‘mJ©Ho$ {gÕm§VHo$ AZwgma AZw¶m¶r nwéfHo$ {ddmhmonam§V AnZr {ddm{hV
órH$mo ñd¶§ ^moJZogo nyd© Jmoñdm‘r ‘hmamOH$mo g‘{n©V H$aZr Mm{hE. Bg
AmjonH$mo g˶ {gÕ H$aZo hoVw MVwWm©Ë‘O lrJmoHw$bZmWOr Ûmam {da{MV
{gÕm§Vahñ¶H$s Q>rH$mH$m {‘϶m AW©KQ>Z àñVwV {H$¶m J¶m. H$agZXmg
‘yiOrH$mo dñVwV… g§ñH¥$V^mfmH$m H$moB© kmZ hr Zht hmoZogo g§ñH¥$VQ>rH$mH$m
A§J«oOr ^mfm‘| AZwdmX ^r JbV àñVwV {H$¶m. Eogo AkmZr Ed§ nyd©J«h¶wº$
ì¶{º$ Ûmam Omo-Omo ^r nw{ï>‘mJ©g§~§Yr {gÕm§V àñVwV {H$¶o JE, do g^r
AkmZ‘ybH$ Ed§ ^«mpÝV‘ybH$ Wo. à{Vdm{X¶m|Zo nw{ï>gåàXm¶Ho$ EH$ ^r
g¡Õm§{VH$J«§Wm|H$m Aܶ¶Z Z H$aVo hþE ‘mÌ bmoH$àM{bV ^«mÝV AdYmaUmAm|Ho$
ghmao hr ‘wH$X‘oHo$ Xm¡amZ AXmbV‘| à{VdmX àñVwV {H$¶o Wo.
nw{ï>‘mJ©‘| goì¶ ‘mÌ na~«÷ ^JdmZ lrH¥$îU hr h¢. eaUmJ{V, ^{º$,
{ZdoXZ, g‘n©U VWm ñdgÎmmH$ g^r nXmWm]H$m {d{Z¶moJ ^r ‘mÌ nyU©nwéfmoÎm‘
^JdmZ lrH¥$îUH$mo hr {H$¶m OmVm h¡.
lrJmoHw$bZmWOr Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""~«÷gå~ÝYH$aU§ Zm‘ EVÝ‘mJu¶mMm¶©Ûmam ^Jd{ÞdoXZ‘²''

({gÕmÝVahñ¶ Q>rH$m.2) AWm©V² ~«÷g§~§Ygo VmËn¶© h¡ AnZo
gåàXm¶Ho$ AmMm¶© Ûmam ^JdmZHo$ à{V H$adm¶m J¶m Xoh, BpÝж,
àmU, AÝV…H$aU g‘oV gd©ñdH$m g‘n©U.
7

lraKwZmWOr Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""~¥ h ËdmX² ~ « ÷ nw é fmo Î m‘…, VËgå~ÝY… Vpñ‘Z² Xo h mË‘Zmo …
{ZdoXZbjU…'' ({gÕmÝVahñ¶.Q>rH$m.2)AWm©V² {ZdoXZH$m

bjU h¡; Xoh, AmË‘m Am{XH$m ì¶mnH$ na~«÷ nwéfmoÎm‘
lrH¥$îUHo$ gmW g§~§Y H$admZm.
lrH$ë¶mUam¶Or Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""~«÷gå~ÝYmo Zm‘ ñd‘mJm©Mm¶©Ûmam ^Jd{V {ZdoXZ‘²'' ({gÕmÝVa.
Q>rH$m.2)AWm©V² ñd‘mJu¶ AmMm¶© Ûmam ^JdmZH$mo
(ñdgd©ñdH$m) {ZdoXZ H$aZm.
lrd«OmoËgdOr Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""~«÷gå~ÝYH$aU§ Zm‘ gmjmËnwéfmoÎm‘gå~ÝYH$aU‘². Vƒ
lr‘XmMm¶©Ûmam eaUJ‘Znyd©H$‘².'' ({gÕmÝVahñ¶.Q>rH$m.2)

AWm©V² gmjmV² nwéfmoÎm‘Ho$ gmW g§~§Y hmoZm; dmo ^r
eaUmJ{Vnyd©H$ lr‘XmMm¶©OrHo$ Ûmam g§~§Y hmoZm.
lrJmoHw$bmoËgdOr Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""~« ÷ U… lrnw é fmo Î m‘ñ¶ gå~pÝYH$aUmËgd© ñ dg‘n© U o Z
VXr¶ËdgånmXZ‘²'' ({gÕmÝVahñ¶.Q>rH$m.2) AWm©V² na~«÷

lrnwéfmoÎm‘Ho$ gmW g§~§Y hmoZm hr ~«÷g§~§Y h¡. ~«÷g§~§Y Ûmam
gd©ñdH$m g‘n©U H$aVo hþE nwéfmoÎm‘‘| VXr¶ËdH$m gånmXZ
H$aZm.
lrh[aam¶ ‘hmà^w Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""AmXm¡ gå~ÝYH$aU§ H$ݶ¶od ñd¶§dao& ñdñ¶ gd©nXmWm©Zm§
‘Zgm VoZ ¶moOZ‘²& gå~ÝY˶m Xÿa˶od JwéUm'' ({gÕmÝV-

ahñ¶.Q>rH$m.2)
lrnwéfmoÎm‘Or {gÕmÝVahñ¶J«§WH$s Q>rH$m‘| Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""~«÷gå~ÝYmo Zm‘ gd©pñ‘Z² ^JdËñdm{‘H$Ëdê$n… gå~ÝY…,
Vñ¶H$aU§ Zm‘ ^JdVm AmMm¶m© Z ² à{V JÚo Z mo º $mo ¶
AmË‘g‘n©UàH$ma…, VX²ar˶m ^Jd{V ñdmË‘g{hV-ñdr¶8

gd©nXmWm©Zm§ ^Jd{V VWmËd{dkmnZ‘²'' ({gÕmÝVahñ¶. Q>rH$m.2)

AW©: ~«÷g§~§Ygo VmËn¶© h¡ g^r dñVwAm|Ho$ à{V ^mJdV
ñdm{‘H$Ëdê$n g§~§Y. g§~§Ygo VmËn¶© h¡ ^JdmZHo$ à{V
AmMm¶©Ho$ Ûmam H$ho JE JÚ‘§Ìgo AmË‘g‘n©U àH$maH$s ar{Vgo
Amˑm g{hV AnZo g^r nXmWm]H$m {dkmnZ H$aZm.
‘yb {gÕmÝVahñ¶J«§W‘| ""XodXodñ¶'' ({gÕm§Vahñ¶.5) nX‘|
^JdmZH$mo hr g‘n©U H$aZm C{MV ~Vm¶m J¶m h¡. gåàXm¶H$mo àñVwV ñdê$n
àXmZ H$aZodmbo ‘hmà^w lrd„^mMm¶© hmoZogo Amnlr Ûmam {da{MV ‘ybJ«§Wm|Ho$
Ûmam hr gåàXm¶Ho$ ñdê$nH$m kmZ hmo nmZm g§^d h¡. AmMm¶©Ì¶r Ûmam {da{MV
‘ybJ«§Wm|Ho$ D$na {da{MV nydm©Mm¶m]H$s Q>rH$m Ed§ AmYw{ZH$ ì¶m»¶mZm|H$m VmËn¶©
^r ‘ybdmUrgo g§JV hmoZona hr ~bdmZ ‘mZm Om gH$Vm h¡. lrh[aam¶ ‘hmà^w
Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""AZwdmXmo Z ñd~wX²Ü¶m qH$Vw ‘ybH«$‘mJV….
AWm{n VÌ Mmnú¶mo ÑT>… ñdmMm¶©g§l¶….
EVmÑeoZ JwéUm AdJ˶ {Z{Ib§ OZ….
Am{l˶ M {ZOmMm¶m©Z² gXmZ§X§ gXm ^OoV².''

({ejmnÌ.9&28-29)
AW©: AZwdmX ~w{ÕH$pënV àH$mago H$aZm ¶mo½¶ Zht h¡, {H$ÝVw ‘ybH«$‘go àmá
AW© H$aZm hr ¶mo½¶ h¡. VËníMmV² ^r lrAmMm¶©OrHo$ à{V ÑT> Aml¶ hmoZm
Amdí¶H$ h¡. ^º$OZ Ego JwéHo$ Ûmam hr ‘mJu¶ {gÕm§Vm|H$m kmZ àmá H$aVo hþE
lrAmMm¶©OrHo$ Aml¶‘o§ ahH$a gXmZ§Xê$n lrH¥$îUH$m gXm ^OZ H$ao§. Cnamoº$
g‘n©UHo$ ñdê$nH$m kmZ AmMm¶©dmUrgo àmá H$aVo hþE g‘n©U Ho$db
nw{ï>nwéfmoÎm‘ na~«÷ lrH¥$îUHo$ à{V hr {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡; Aݶ {H$grHo$ à{V
Zht.
àg§Jde EH$ ñnï>Vm ¶hm§ H$aZr Amdí¶H$ h¡ {H$ nw{ï>gåàXm¶ g‘oV g^r
d¡{XH$ gåàXm¶m|‘| nyd©-nyd© AmMm¶m]H$s à‘mUê$nVm hr ~bdmZ ‘mZr OmVr h¡
VWm AVEd nw{ï>‘mJ©‘| ^r lw{V-ñ‘¥{V-nwamU-B{Vhmg-AmJ‘V§Ì-~«÷gyÌm{X
g^r gd©ñdrH¥$V d¡{XH$ emóJ«§W VWm Cnamoº$ doXm{Xemóàmoº$ {gÕm§Vm|go gd©Wm
A{déÕ Ed§ na‘à‘mUñdê$n ‘hmà^w lrd„^mMm¶©, lrJmonrZmWOr Ed§
9

lr{dÇ>bZmWOr Ûmam {da{MV ‘ybJ«§W na‘ à‘mU h¢. AVEd gmåàXm{¶H$
{gÕm§V, gåàXm¶Ho$ nadVu AmMm¶m]H$m H$V©ì¶ Ed§ gmåàXm{¶H$s gmYZmàUmbr
g§~§Yr kmZ Cnamoº$ AmMm¶©Ì¶rH$s ‘ybdmUrgo hr àmßV {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡; Aݶ
{H$gr ^r ‘mܶ‘go Zht. nadVuH$mb‘| Ed§ AmYw{ZH$H$mb‘| Xoe-H$mb-g§J
Am{XHo$ H$maU àM{bV hþB© {H$gr ^r naånam Ed§ n[adV©ZH$s à‘mUê$nVm
‘ybmMm¶©dmUrgo g§JV hmoZona hr ñdrH$mar Om gH$Vr h¡; AݶWm Zht.
‘ybJ«§Wm|‘| AmMm¶©Ì¶rH¥$V J«§Wm|H$s gåàXm¶‘| lw{V‘ybH$Vm h¡,
lr{dÇ>bZmWOrHo$ 7 nwÌ Ed§ lrh[aam¶‘hmà^w, lrnwéfmoÎm‘Or Am{X {dÛmZ
AmMm¶m] Ûmam {da{MV Q>rH$m Ed§ J«§Wgm{h˶H$s ñ‘¥{Vê$nVm h¡. dmVm©gm{h˶,
{ZOdmVm©-KédmVm©, dMZm‘¥V g§H$bZ Am{X J«§Wm|‘| d{U©V àg§J/Amkm/dMZ
AmMm¶©Ì¶rH¥$V J«§Wm|go gwg§JV hmoZo na hr ‘mݶ h¢; AݶWm Aà‘mU h¢.
dmVm©gm{h˶ ¶Ú{n MVwWm©Ë‘O lrJmoHw$bZmWOr Ed§ ^mdàH$me h[aam¶‘hmà^wH$s aMZmHo$ ê$n‘| à{gÕ hmoZona ^r H$mbH«$‘‘| CZ‘| AmYw{ZH$ AZJ©b
àbmnHo$ OmoS>o OmZoH$s gmjr ñd¶§ 252 d¡îUd©dmVm©Ho$ àH$meH$m|Zo hr Xr hmoZogo
à‘mU‘ybH$Vm g§{X½Y hr ahVr h¡. VËH$mbrZ {dÛmZ AmMm¶© lrXodH$sZ§XZOr
Ûmam dmVm©gm{h˶Ho$ àH$meZHo$ g‘¶ Xr JB© AmkmH$mo àH$meH$s¶‘|
AYmo{b{IV àH$mago àH$m{eV {H$¶m J¶m h¡:
""Äepf¡ lº„ â’d hMs 84/252 h¥óZhp¡“u
hpsp®“¡ R>‘phhp“u BÃR>phips¹ îuv$¡hL$u“„v$“Æ
“u k„drs ‘|R>hp Nep¡ Ðepf¡ îuv$¡hL$u“„v$“ÆA¡
Q¡sìep¡ A“¡ L$üy„ : "‘l¡gp sp¡ Ap hpsp® W$uL$ lsu
‘f„sy ‘pR>m’u g¡ML$p¡A¡ ‘p¡sp“p„ gMpZ“p
gp¡cdp„ d“dp„ Aph¡ s¡hp N‘p¡X$p Dd¡fhp“y„ ify
L$ey¯ A“¡ A¡d L$fu“¡ ‘p¡sp“u ‘yõsL$p¡“p„ ‘©›$
h^pfhp gpÁep. Ap’u Aphp N‘p¡X$pAp¡ ‘f
rhíhpk “ fpMhp¡ Å¡BA¡.'' (252 h¥óZh hpsp®
âL$piL$ue)
Cnamoº$ gmåàXm{¶H$ à‘mUì¶dñWmH$mo AYmo{b{IV Vm{bH$mAm|Ho$
D$na Ñ{ï>nmV H$aZogo g‘Pm Om gH$Vm h¡:
10

emóàm‘mʶ

lw{V


ñ‘¥
{V











gXmMma




ñd{à¶


= à‘mU

 =Aà‘mU

lw{VdMZHo$ CnbãY Z hmoZo na

ñ‘¥{V







ñd{ච gXmMma


lw{V-ñ‘¥{VHo$ dMZ CnbãY Z hmoZo na



ñd{à¶
11


gXmMma

gmåàXm{¶H$ à‘mUì¶dñWm :

lw{V=lr‘hmà^wOr
lrJmonrZmWOr
lrJwgm§B©Or
ñ‘¥{V=lr{J[aYaOr
Am{X nydm©Mm¶© VWm
‘ybmMm¶©Ho$ J«ÝWm|Ho$
Q>rH$mH$ma






gXmMma=dmVm©
dMZm‘¥V Am{X






ñd{à¶=
Añ‘Xm{X

= à‘mU

=Aà‘mU

12

nw{ï>‘mJ©‘| JwéH$m ñdê$n
àíZHo$ ‘w»¶V¶m 4 àH$ma hmoVo h¢:
(1) EH$m§eì¶mH$aUr¶: {OZ àíZm|H$m CÎma EH$ hr eãX‘| {X¶m Om gHo$. ¶Wm;
hm§ AWdm Zm Ûmam.
(2) {d^Á¶-ì¶mH$aUr¶: {OZ àíZm|H$m CÎma {d^º$ H$aHo$ hr {X¶m Om gH$Vm
hmo. ¶Wm n[apñW{V {deof‘| EH$ CÎma VWm n[apñW{VHo$ n[ad{V©V hmoZona
CÎma‘| ^r n[adV©Z AmZm.
(3) à{Vn¥ÀN>m-ì¶mH$aUr¶: {OZ àíZm|H$m CÎma EH$ Z¶m àíZ CËnÞ H$aHo$ hr
{X¶m Om gH$Vm hmo.
(4) ñWmnZr¶: {OZ àíZm|‘| CÎmaH$m gd©Wm ˶mJ hr H$a {X¶m OmE.
‘hmamO bm¶~bHo$g‘| ݶm¶mb¶‘| O~ nw{ï>‘mJu¶ AZw¶m¶rH$mo nyN>m
J¶m; Is Guru a God? (³¶m Jwé B©ída h¢?) V~ CÎma ‘mÌ hm§ AWdm Zm‘| hr
XoZoH$mo ~mܶ {H$¶m J¶m. Y‘© {df¶H$ Ed§ Y‘m©Y‘©H$m {ZU©¶ ³¶m
{~ZgmåàXm{¶H$ ݶm¶mb¶‘| hmoZm Mm{hE? Bg àíZH$m CÎma ^r ‘mÌ hm§ AWdm
Zm‘| hr gr{‘V aIZm, Ym{‘©H$ {gÕm§Vm|H$mo g‘PZoHo$ hoVwgo {H$VZm Cn¶wº$ ‘mZm
Om gH$Vm h¡?
dñVwV… Is Guru a God? ¶h àíZ EH$m§eì¶mH$aUr¶ Z hmoH$a,
{d^Á¶-ì¶mH$aUr¶ AWdm à{Vn¥ÀN>m-ì¶mH$aUr¶ àíZ h¡. lrd„^mMm¶©Or
AnZo àmH$Q>çH$m hoVw ~VmVo hþE Amkm H$aVo h¢: ""AWª Vñ¶ {ddo{MVw§ Z...''
(^mJ.gw~mo.1) {H$ lrH¥$îUH$s Amkmgo ^mJdV ‘hmnwamU‘| JyT>mW©V¶m pñWV
^{º$‘mJ©H$mo àH$Q> H$aZoHo$ hoVwgo hr ^yVbna AmnH$m AdVaU hþAm h¡.
AnZoAmnH$mo ^JdÔmgV¶m g§~mo{YV H$aVo hþE Amn Amkm H$aVo h¢: ""B{V
lrH¥$îUXmgñ¶ d„^ñ¶ {hV§ dM…'' (A§V…H$aUà~moY.10). ‘hmà^w
lrd„^mMm¶© ^JdmZHo$ ñdê$nH$m {Zê$nU H$aVo hþE Amkm H$aVo h¢: ""g Ed
na‘H$mð>mnÞ… H$Xm{MX² OJXwÕmamWª AIÊS>… nyU© Ed àmXþ^y©V… "H¥$îU' B{V CÀ¶Vo.''

(VÎdmW©.Xr.{Z.1&1) Cnamoº$ dMZgo hr ¶h ñnï> hm OmVm h¡ {H$
lr‘hmà^wOrZo H$ht ^r AnZr AWdm ñdd§er¶ AmMm¶©/Jwé/‘hmamOH$s
godm-^{º$ H$aZoH$m CnXoe Z XoVo hþE g^r àH$mago gd©ñdHo$ g‘n©U Ûmam ‘mÌ
lrH¥$îUH$mo hr goì¶ Ed§ ^OZr¶V¶m AZoH$mZoH$ J«§Wm|‘| {Zê${nV {H$¶o h¢. ¶Wm:
13

1. ""AVñVw ~«÷dmXoZ H¥$îUo ~w{Õa² {dYr¶Vm‘².'' ({gÕmÝV‘wº$mdbr.12)
2. ""gd©Xm gd©^mdoZ ^OZr¶mo d«Om{Yn…'' (MVw…íbmoH$s.1)
3. ""H¥$îUgodm gXm H$m¶m©'' ({gÕmÝV‘wº$mdbr.1)
4. ""H¥$îUmV² na§ ZmpñV X¡d‘²'' (AÝV…H$aUà~moY.1)
5. ""nyUm©Z§Xmo h[añVñ‘mV² H¥$îU Ed J{V‘©‘''(H¥$îUml¶.8)
6. ""¶X² ¶X² Bï>V‘§ bmoHo$ ¶ƒm{V{එmË‘Z…. ¶oZ ñ¶mV² {Zd¥©{Ve² {MÎmo VV² H¥$îUo
gmY¶oX² Y«wd‘²'' (V.Xr.{Z.2&236)

Eogo AZoH$mZoH$ dMZm| VWm à‘mUm|go ¶hr {gÕ hmoVm h¡ {H$
lr‘hmà^wOrZo H$Xm{n AnZr na~«÷ lrH¥$îUHo$ gmW VwbZm Zht H$s h¡ VWm ‘mÌ
lrH¥$îUH$mo hr nw{ï>‘mJ©‘| goì¶ VWm ^OZr¶ ~VmE h¢.
‘hmà^w lrd„^mMm¶©OrHo$ {ÛVr¶ AmË‘O lr{dÇ>bZmWOr AmnHo$
ñdê$nH$m {Zê$nU H$aVo hþE Amkm H$aVo h¢: ""lr‘Û„^Zm‘Yo¶ gÑemo ^m{d Z
^yVmo@ñ˶{n.'' (ñ’w$aËH¥$îUào‘m‘¥VñVmoÌ‘²$:5) AWm©V² ‘hmà^wHo$ Vwë¶ ^yVdV©‘mZ Ed§ ^{dî¶H$mb‘| H$moB© ^r Zht hmo gH$Vm h¡. AmnlrHo$ AmË‘O hr ¶{X
AnZr VwbZm ‘hmà^wHo$ gmW Z H$aVo hm|, V~ AmnlrHo$ d§eOm|H$s nwéfmoÎm‘ê$nVmH$m àíZ hr H$hm§ CnpñWV hmoVm h¡! AV… nw{ï>‘mJ©‘| JwéñWmZr¶
AmMm¶©d§eO H$Xm{n nwéfmoÎm‘ê$n Zht hr h¢ VWm nw{ï>‘mJ©H$s AmMm¶©Ì¶rHo$
Vwë¶ ^r Zht hmo gH$Vo h¢. AmMm¶©d§eOm|H$m JwéV¶m AmXa ‘hmà^w Ûmam
à{Vnm{XV JwéHo$ bjUm|go ¶wº$ hmoZona hr {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡; AݶWm Zht.
JwéH$s CnmgZmH$m àíZ ^r V^r CnpñWV hmoVm h¡ {H$ O~ Jwé AnZo
{eî¶H$mo na~«÷ lrH¥$îUH$s àm{áê$n ‘mJ©‘| àeñV H$ao. emó‘| Eogo CÎm‘ JwéH$s
àe§gm‘| AZoH$ dMZ H$ho JE h¢, {OZH$m VmËn¶© ‘mÌ Jwé‘| AmXa àH$Q> H$aZm
h¡. Eogr {Zê$nUe¡brH$mo emó‘| CnmgZm{d{Y H$hr OmVr h¡. CnmgZm{d{YHo$
ñdê$nH$m {Zê$nU H$aVo hþE Xe{XJÝV{dO¶r lrnwéfmoÎm‘Or AUw^mî¶H$s
àH$meQ>rH$m‘| Amkm H$aVo h¢:
""AZwËH¥$ï>ñ¶ CËH¥$ï>ËdoZ CnmgZ§ Ñí¶Vo, ‘Zmo ~«÷o˶m{X, Z Vw CËH¥$ï>ñ¶
{ZH¥$ï>ËdoZ.'' AWm©V² AZwËH¥$îQ> Zm‘-ê$n-H$‘©H$s CËH¥$ï>ê$n na~«÷ËdoZ
CnmgZm H$aZoHo$ àH$maH$m {Zê$nU H$aVo hþE "‘Z ~«÷ h¡! AÞ ~«÷ h¡!' Am{X dm³¶

V¡Îmar¶ Cn{ZfX²‘| H$ho JE h¢. BZH$m à¶moOZ {H$ÝVw CËH¥$ï>H$s {ZH¥$ï>ËdoZ
14

CnmgZm H$aZm Zht h¡; A{nVw {ZH¥$ï>H$s CËH¥$ï>ËdoZ CnmgZm àH$ma ~VmZo‘| h¡!
Bgr {d{YH$m AZwgaU H$aVo hþE Jwé, ‘mVm-{nVm, A{V{W Am{X‘| ""‘mV¥Xodmo
^d! {nV¥Xodmo ^d! AmMm¶©Xodmo ^d! A{V{WXodmo ^d!'' Am{X dMZm| Ûmam
XodËd/~«÷ËdH$m {Zê$nU {H$¶m J¶m h¡. AV… gdm}Îm‘ JwUm|go gånÞ ‘hmà^w,
lrJmonrZmWOr, lrJwgm§BOr Am{X AmMm¶©d¶m]H$m na~«÷H$s àm{áhoVw {H$¶m J¶m
A˶mXanyd©H$ nyOZ/CnmgZ Am{X‘| H$moB© Xmof Zht h¡. Eogo CÎm‘ JwéH$s àe§gm
Ed§ nyOZr¶VmH$m {Zê$nU H$aZoHo$ hoVwgo hr
""Jwam¡ ^oX~w{Õ… àW‘mo AnamY…'',""¶ñ¶ Xodo nam ^{º$… ¶Wm Xodo
VWm Jwam¡'', ""¶ñ¶ gmjmX² ^Jd{V kmZXrnàXo Jwam¡'', ""Zm‘
{MÝVm‘{U… H¥$îU-M¡Vݶag {dJ«h…, gVm§ {ZÝXm§ ZmåZm§ na‘‘² AnamY§
{dVZwVo'', ""AmMm¶© M¡Ë¶ dnwfm ñdJqV ì¶Z{º$''

(^{º$‘mJu¶mnamY-{Zê$nU{dd¥{Îm….nwéfmoÎm‘.J«§-5)
Am{X dMZ H$ho JE h¢. na§Vw BZ g^r dMZm|H$mo ¶mo½¶Vm-A¶mo½¶VmH$m
{dMma {H$¶o {~Zm {H$gr ^r ì¶{º$‘| Amamo{nV H$aZoH$m à¶mg Vmo V^r A{gÕ hmo
OmVm h¡, O~ ‘hmà^w ñd¶§ hr ""VX^mdo ñd¶§ dm{n ‘y{Vª H¥$Ëdm hao… ¹${MV²..''
(VÎdmW©.Xr.{Z.2&228) dMZ Ûmam ¶mo½¶ JwéHo$ A^md‘| {eî¶H$mo ñdV… hr
^JdX²godmnam¶U hmoZoH$s Amkm Xo aho h¢!
Cnamoº$ {gÕm§VH$m {dMma H$aZona ""BP Jwé A Jm°S>?'' àíZH$m
g‘mYmZ ¶h {gÕ hmoVm h¡ {H$, ¶{X àíZ ""³¶m Jwé H¥$îU g‘mZ h¢?'' gÝX^©‘|
nyN>m OmE Vmo CÎma ¶h h¡ {H$, ""¶og, Jwé Bg Jm°S>.'' na§Vw ¶{X àíZH$m gÝX^© ¶h
hmo {H$ ""³¶m H¥$îUHo$ g‘mZ hr Jwé h¢?'', V~ CÎma ¶h hmoJm {H$ ""Zmo, Jwé BP
ZmoQ> A Jm°S>.''
d¡{XH$ Y‘©emóm|‘| à¶wº$ eãXm|Ho$ AW©VmËn¶©H$m {ZU©¶ H$aZo hoVw
‘r‘m§gmemóH$s àd¥{Îm h¡. AVEd doXm{Xemóm|‘| à¶wº$ {H$gr ^r eãX, dm³¶
AWdm àH$aUH$m AW© ^r ‘r‘m§gmemó‘| à{Vnm{XV {Z¶‘m|H$s ‘¶m©Xm‘| hr
H$aZoH$s emór¶ àUmbr h¡. doX‘| à{Vnm{XV {df¶m|H$m {ZU©¶ doXHo$ {ejm,
H$ën, ì¶mH$aU, {Zéº$, N>§X Ed§ Á¶mo{Vf; BZ 6 doXm§Jm|Ho$ Aܶ¶Z Ûmam
g§J{VH$m {dMma H$aVo hþE {H$¶m OmVm h¡. Cnamoº$ {df¶m|H$mo Ñ{ï>nW‘| aIo {~Zm
EoH$m§{VH$ê$ngo ¶{X {H$gr ^r eãX ¶m dm³¶H$m AW© {H$¶m OmE Vmo dh eãX Ed§
15

dm³¶ AnZo ‘ybñdê$nH$mo Imo ~¡R>Vm h¡. emódMZm|Ho$ AW©KQ>ZH$s à{H«$¶m
~VmVo hþE O¡{‘Zr ‘r‘m§gmgyÌ‘| H$hVo h¢: ""lw{V-{b“-dm³¶-àH$aU-ñWmZg‘m»¶mZm§ g‘dm¶o nmaXm¡~©ë¶§ AW©{dàH$fm©V²'' AWm©V² Cnamoº$ qbJm|Ho$ Abmdm
J«§WHo$ CnH«$‘, Cng§hma Ed§ àH$aUm{XH$s EH$dm³¶Vmê$n g§J{VH$m {dMma
H$aVo hþE VX§J^yV dm³¶ Ed§ eãXm|Ho$ AW©VmËn¶©H$m {ZU©¶ {H$¶m OmZoH$m
{Zê$nU O¡{‘ZrF${fZo ‘r‘m§gmgyÌ 2&1&46 Ed§ 6&1&43‘| {H$¶m h¡.
H$agZXmgZo lrJmoHw$bZmWOr Ûmam {da{MV {gÕm§Vahñ¶ J«§WH$s Q>rH$mH$m AW©
O~ ݶm¶mb¶‘| àñVwV {H$¶m V~ Cnamoº$ VmËn¶©{ZU©¶H$s à{H«$¶mH$mo {Vbm§Obr
hr Xo Xr Wr!! lrJmoHw$bZmWOr Ûmam {b{IV eãXm|H$m AW© Aݶ dm³¶m|go
gd©Wm {d¶mo{OV Ñ{ï>H$moUgo hr {H$¶m J¶m Wm. eãXemóHo$ BZ àma§{^H$ Ed§
gm‘mݶ {Z¶‘m|H$m ^r nmbZ {H$¶m Zht J¶m Wm!
J«§W àH$meZH$m à¶moOZ
nw{ï>‘mJ©Ho$ B{Vhmgna Ñ{ï>nmV H$aZogo ¶h XoIm J¶m h¡ {H$ {d{dY
gåàXm¶m|/‘mJm]H$m AZwgaU H$aZodmbo bmoJm| Ûmam g‘¶-g‘¶na nw{ï>‘mJ©H$s
qZXm H$aZoHo$ hoVwgo AZoH$ Amjon àñVwV {H$¶o JE; {OZH$m ‘hmà^wHo$ H$mbgo
boH$a lrnwéfmoÎm‘Or, lrJÅx>bmbmOr Am{X {dÛmZm|Zo g‘w{MV CÎma àñVwV H$aVo
hþE g¡Õm§{VnjH$m ñWmnZ {H$¶m h¡. ¶Wm H$mer{dídZmW ‘§{Xa‘| hþE nÌmbå~Z
J«§WHo$ boIZ Ûmam em§H$a‘Vmdbpå~¶m|H$m I§S>Z, {MÐÿnHo$ gmW dmX,
bú‘UZmW X§S>rHo$ Amjonm|H$m {ZagZ, X¶mZ§X gañdVrHo$ Amjonm|H$m I§S>Z
Am{X àg§Jm|‘| nwZ…-nwZ… gåàXm¶Ho$ {gÕm§V àñVwV hmoVo aho h¢.
àñVwV J«§WH$m à¶moOZ ^r ‘hmamO bm¶~bHo$g‘| nw{ï>‘mJu¶
g‘n©UH$m ñdê$n, Jwé-{eî¶H$m g§~§Y, JwéH$m ñdê$n Am{X {df¶H$ CR>mE JE
Ang¡Õm§{Vnjm|H$m {ZagZ Ed§ ‘hmà^w àH${Q>V ewÕ ^{º$‘mJu¶ {gÕm§Vm|H$m
ñWmnZ H$aZm hr h¡. ¶Ú{n ¶h {df¶ Eo{Vhm{gH$ Ñ{ï>go ‘hÎdnyU© h¡ hr na§Vw
gmåàVH$mbrZ AmMm¶©dJ© Ed§ AZw¶m¶rdJ©‘| ^r nw{ï>{gÕm§VmoHo$ {df¶‘| àd{V©V
AݶWm^md/AݶWm AmMaU, Cnojm^md Ed§ AkmZ ^r gmåàXm{¶H$
Ñ{ï>H$moUgo A{Ve¶ {dMmaUr¶ {df¶ ~Zm hr hþAm h¡!!
AV… ^JdËgodm, ^{º$‘mJu¶ g‘n©UH$m {gÕm§VewÕ ñdê$n Ed§ Jwé{eî¶H$s àUmbrgo MbVr gåàXm¶H$s A{dpÀN>Þ naånam g§~§Yr ñnï>VmE§
16

AmYw{ZH$H$mb‘| ^r A{V Amdí¶H$ hmoZogo {gÕm§V {Zê$nUnyd©H$ An{gÕm§VHo$
{ZdV©ZH$m ¶h ñdën ‘{V AZwgma {H$¶m J¶m à¶mg‘mÌ h¡!!
h‘| nyU© {dídmg h¡ {H$ ¶h J«§W nw{ï>‘mJ© {df¶H$ AkmZê$nr
A§YH$maH$m {ZdmaU H$aZodmbm {XdmH$a {gÕ hmoJm VWm AZw¶m¶rdJ© ‘hmà^w
Cn{Xï> ‘mJ©H$m AZwgaU H$aVo hþE nw{ï>à^wH$s àm{áHo$ ‘mJ©‘| àeñV hm|Jo!
&&lrH¥$îUmn©U‘ñVw&&
dm³nVoa² dMZmdbr nw{ï>nW Xrnmdbr!!
ew^{‘{V:
g§dËgamoËgd
{d.g§.2078

‘¡Ìr Jmoñdm‘r
Ydb nQ>ob
à˶wf ‘h{f©
CËH$f© e‘m©
C‘§J {eamoX[a¶m
A‘r ^Å>

17

‘hmamO bm¶~bHo$g Ed§ nw{ï>{gÕm§V
‘hmamO bm¶~bHo$g - nyd©^y{‘H$m
gm‘mݶV¶m {H$gr ^r d§eH$s Mma nrT>rH$s Ad{Y àm¶… gm¡ dfm]H$s
‘mZr OmVr h¡. VXZwgma nw{ï>‘mJ©H$s gmåàVH$mbrZ 16 nrT>r¶m|Ho$ H$mbI§S>m|‘|
àW‘ eVrH$s ‘hmà^w lrd„^mMm¶©, lrJmonrZmWr, lrJwgm§BOr Ed§ AmnlrHo$
nwÌm|H$m H$mb nw{ï>gåàXm¶Ho$ B{Vhmg‘| ‘mJ©Ho$ àdV©Z Ed§ àgmaUHo$ hoVwgo CR>mE
JE A˶{YH$ n[al‘ Ed§ AXå¶ {Zð>mHo$ n[aUm‘de à^mVH$mbrZ lÕmoËnmXH$
H$mb ahm h¡. Amn g^r d§XZr¶ Ed§ nyOZr¶ ‘hmZw^mdm|Ho$ H$mb‘| nw{ï>^{º$
AnZo {dewÕ, n{dÌV‘ Ed§ gdm}Îm‘ ñWmZ‘| ahr. H$Qw> dmñV{dH$Vm na§Vw ¶h h¡
{H$ H$moB© ^r Y‘© Ed§ gmYZmàUmbr AnZo ‘yb àdV©ZmHo$ dMZm|‘| ~§YH$a gXmHo$
{bE ah Zht nmVr hmoZogo nadVu {ddoMZmH$mam|H$s AnZr g‘P, naånam‘| CgHo$
AZwgaU‘| AmVr gw{dYm/Agw{dYm VWm Xoe-H$mbH$s n[apñW{VHo$ AZwê$n
AnZo ñdê$nH$mo {d{hV, Amndm{XH$, A{Z{fÕ AWdm {Z{fÕ ~Zm hr boVr h¡.
g§^{dV nj XmoZm| hr h¢; 1.¶m Vmo Y‘©àUmbr ¶m Aݶ ^r Or{dV àUm{b¶m§
CZHo$ ‘ybñdê$n Ed§ à¶moOZHo$ AZwê$n ñdñWê$noU {dH${gV ^r hmo gH$Vr h¢
VWm 2. Cg àUmbrHo$ {dH¥$V hmo OmZoH$s g§^mdZm ^r CVZr hr ghO h¡.
AVEd H$mbH«$‘‘| BÀN>¶m qH$dm A{ZÀN>¶m ^r Xoe-H$mbH$s
n[apñW{V¶m|Ho$ AZwê$n AmB© {dH¥${V¶m|Ho$ à‘mUñdê$n AWdm gåàXm¶Ho$
‘yb{MÌHo$ ê$n‘| ñdrH$maZoHo$ ~Om¶ ‘yybmMm¶m}n{Xï> na§namAm|H$mo hr
à‘mU‘ybH$ ‘mZZm ~m¡{ÕH$ {ZU©¶ hmo gH$Vm h¡. Hw$N> Eogr hr Xþ{dYmnyU© Ed§
g§Kf©nyU© n[apñW{V¶m|H$m gm‘Zm H$aZoHo$ d¥Îmm§Vm|go nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$m B{Vhmg ^r
^am hþAm h¡. à^wMaU lrJwgm§BOrHo$ H$mbgo boH$a AmYw{ZH$H$mb n¶ªV ~XbVr
gm‘m{OH$, amOH$s¶, Ym{‘©H$ Ed§ ì¶{º$JV n[apñW{V¶m|Ho n[aUm‘ñdê$n
‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$mo OrZoHo$ AmXe© Ed§ àmá n[apñW{V¶m|Ho$ gmW g§Kf© nw{ï>
gåàXm¶Ho$ CnXoeH$dJ©/AmMm¶©dJ© Ed§ AZw¶m¶rdJ©Zo ^r {H$¶m hr h¡. BZ
n[apñW{V¶m|‘| {OÝhm|Zo ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$mo OrZoHo$ à{V AnZr AXå¶ {Zð>m H$m¶‘
aIr, do n[adV©ZHo$ àdmhgo ~MVo hþE gåàXm¶Ho$ ñdm{^‘mZr AZw¶m¶r ~Z nmE
VWm Xþ^m©½¶de {ZOr ñdmW©H$s ajm hoVw {OÝhm|Zo AnZr gmåàXm{¶H$s {Zð>mH$mo
18

N>moS>H$a AmYw{ZH$ àdmhH$mo hr AmXe© ñdrH$ma {b¶m, do Bg {dH¥${VH$s
Ymamàdmh‘| ~h JE hmoZogo H${Vn¶ Eogr KQ>ZmAm|Ho$ n[aUm‘ñdê$n nw{ï>‘mJ©Ho$
{MÌH$mo [Z§XZr¶ ~ZmZoHo$ OKݶ AnamYgo ~M Zht nmE!
Bgr {gÕm§Vajm Ed§ g§e¶moÀN>oXHo$ àñVwV {df¶‘| Ed§ VËg§~§Yr
g¡Õm§{VH$ ñnï>VmHo$ CnH«$‘‘| ‘hmamO bmB~bHo$gH$s Eo{Vhm{gH$ n¥ð>^y{‘
{dMm¶© {df¶ ~ZVr h¡. Bg Ho$gHo$ ‘yb Xmo {ddmX Wo: 1. Anw{ï>‘mJu¶
‘hmXod‘§{Xa‘| N>ßnZ^moJ ‘ZmoaW hmo gH$Vm h¡ ¶m Zht?, 2.{dYdm órH$m
nwZ{d©dmh hmo gH$Vm h¡ ¶m Zht?
Bgna nw{ï>‘mJu¶ VËH$mbrZ Y‘©JwéAm|Zo EH$ ~S>m {ddmX IS>m H$a
{X¶m Wm {H$ Eogm gZmVZY‘©Ho$ emóm|Ho$ AmYmana hmo Zht gH$Vm h¡. Cg g‘¶
Cnamoº$ {ddmXHo$ gÝX^©‘| {ed^º$m|H$s, gwYmamdm{X¶m|H$s Am¡a ‘w§~B‘| A~
"dr.nr.amoS>.' H$ho OmVo ‘mJ©na V~ Iwbo B©gmB© MM©Ho$ nmXar {dëgZH$s EH$
g§¶wº$ Ywar nw{ï>‘mJ©Ho$ {damoY‘| Am IS>r hþB©. BZ {ed^º$ ~«m÷Um| VWm
d„^d§eO Jmoñdm‘r ‘hmZw^mdm|H$m V~ Amngr d¡‘Zñ¶ H$m‘ H$a ahm Wm.
^mdZmË‘H$ dmñV{dH$Vm Vmo ¶h h¡ {H$ nw{ï>‘mJud d¡îUdHo$ Ka‘| "Z§XJm§dHo$ ~S>o
Jmon lrZ§Xam¶OrZo ~agmZoHo$ ~S>o Jmon lrd¥f^mZOrH$mo CZHo$ Jm§d Ed§
gOmVr¶m|Ho$$ gmW JmoR> XoH$a ^moOZHo$ {bE Am‘pÝÌV {H$¶m, Bg ^mdZmgo hr
N>ßnZ^moJH$m A§JrH$ma ñdgoì¶ nw{ï>à^wH$mo AnZo hr Ðì¶go VWm AnZo
n[admaOZm|Ho$ gmW {‘bH$a ñdVZw{dÎm Ûmam AamoJm¶m OmVm h¡. Bgr VahH$s
brbm^mdZmHo$ {~Zm Vmo H$moB© ^r AnZo AmamܶH$mo N>ßnZ^moJH$s AZoH${dY
gm‘J«r ³¶m| {Zdo{XV Zhr§ H$a gH$Vm?
{ÛVr¶ g‘ñ¶m ¶h Wr {H$ {hÝXþgwYmamdmXr H${d Z‘©Xme§H$a; C’©$ H${d
Z‘©X ñd¶§ {H$gr {dYdm órHo$ à{V Amgº$ hmoZoHo$ H$maU V~ {dYdm{ddmhH$s
{h‘m¶V H$a aho Wo.
(...s’p L$f¡gp L©$Ðep¡ k„b„^u A“¡ dpfp õhpcprhL$ NyZ rhi¡
dpfp S> L$f¡gp rhh¡Q“k„b„^u lpg gMhp’u d“¡ ’p¡Xy„$; ‘Z dpfp
k„b„^uAp¡“¡ OÏ„ S> “yL$kp“ ’pe A“¡ s¡hu lp¡lp¡ ’B fl¡ dpV¡$ s¡
hpsp¡ OV$s¡ âk„N¡ OV$su fus¡ gMpe s¡d gMhp“¡ dygshu fpMy„ Ry>„.
(dpfu lL$uL$s.L$rh “d®v$.‘©.94) Ap b^u “bmpBAp¡dp„ lÆ A¡L$
Dd¡fp¡ ’B iL¡$ s¡d R>¡; A¡ R>¡ “d®v$“u ”uAp¡ k„b„^u“u “bmpB.
19

”uAp¡ kp’¡“p ‘p¡sp“p k„b„^p¡ bpbsdp„ “d®v$“¡ “¥rsL$b„^“p¡ blº
’p¡X$p “X$sp....rh^hp “d®v$pNp¥fu“¡ ‘fZhp“p¡ s¡Z¡ S>¡ r“Z®e L$ep¡®,
s¡dp„ ‘Z Aphu Ås“u tlds“u S>ê$f lsu. ‘Гu Æhsu lp¡hp
R>sp A“¡ s¡ ‘Z hmu ip„s A“¡ kyiug lp¡hp R>sp s¡Z¡ S>¡ Ap
‘Ngy„ cey¯, s¡ kpQy„ lsy„ s¡d sp¡ ¼p¡B S> L$l¡..Ap‘Z“¡ kÐe kpnu
fpMu“¡ “d®v$ rhj¡ ‘Z L$lu iL$uA¡ L¡$ s¡Z¡ ‘Z ìercQpf L$ep£ S>
lsp¡.. ("“d®v$' ‘©.87-88.g¡.Nygpbv$pk b°p¡L$f.)
CÝhm|Zo Bg {df¶‘| VËH$mbrZ Jmoñdm‘r AmMm¶©, gyaVgo Omo AñWm¶r
ê$ngo ‘w§~B‘| AmE hþE ¶XþZmWOrH$mo gh‘V H$aZm Mmhm. d¡go nw{ï>^{º$Ho$
{gÕmÝVH$s Ñ{ï>go XoIZona ñd¶§ ‘hmà^w ""dUm©l‘dVm§ Y‘} ‘w»¶o Zï>o N>boZ Vw.
{H«$¶‘mUo Z Y‘©… ñ¶mX² AV… Vñ‘mX² Z ‘moMZ‘²...AWm{n Y‘©‘mJ}U pñWËdm H¥$îU§
^OoX² ~wY….'' (V.Xr.{Z.2&223-215) dUm©l‘Y‘m©ZwMaU Ed§ nw{ï>^{º$‘mJu¶ gmYZmàUmbrHo$ nañna g§~§Y {df¶H$ ñnï>Vm Xo hr MwHo$ h¢. VWm{n
{dYdm{ddmhHo$ gZmVZ dUm©l‘Y‘©go {déÕ hmoZoH$m ~d§S>a IS>m H$aVo hþE
ì¶W©‘| nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$mo ~XZm‘ H$admZoH$m nwéfmW© {H$¶m, O~{H$ AmOr{dH$mW©
Xod‘y{V©H$s AmamYZm H$aZodmbm ñd¶§ AgV² eyÐgo ^r OKݶH$mo{Q>H$m n{VV
hmoVm h¡ Ed§ n¹$mÞê$n àgmXH$m {dH«$¶ H$aZodmbm Vmo ñd¶§ hr gÚ…n{VV hmo
OmVm h¡; Eogo dUm©l‘emóm|H$s ì¶dñWm h‘mao ^OZHo$ gmao àH$mam|Ho$ {damoY‘|
IS>r Wr hr!! VWm{n ì¶W©‘| gZmVZY‘©Ho$ ajH$ ~ZVo hþE bm¶~bHo$gH$s
XþK©Q>ZmH$mo h‘Zo ñd¶§ hr Am‘pÝÌV {H$¶m.
{hÝXþY‘©Ho$ J«ÝWm|H$m Aܶ¶Z H$aZodmbo ¶wamonHo$ {dÛmZm|H$mo V~ bJ
ahm Wm {H$ F$½doX Am{X g§{hVmAm|‘| d{U©V Y‘© Vmo d¡go ^r à^mdhrZ hmo J¶m h¡.
^maV‘| V~ ‘mÌ nm¡am{UH$Y‘m]H$m hr àMbZ Wm. AV… ¶{X CÝh| ¶oZHo$Z àH$maoU
g‘má H$a {X¶m Om gHo$ Vmo B©gmB© Y‘©Ho$ àMmaH$mo ‘wº$ dmVmdaU {‘b gH$Vm
h¡. Bg {df¶‘| {dñV¥V {dMma AmJm‘r àH$aUm|‘| {H$¶m OmZm h¡. AV…
‘o³g‘yba, ‘mo{Z¶a {d{b¶‘, nydm}º$ MM©Ho$ nmXar {dëgZ Am{X AZoH$
^maVr¶{dÚmAm|H$m Aܶ¶Z H$aZodmbm|Zo Bg {Xem‘| nwéfmW© àmaå^ H$a hr {X¶o
Wo. (.....the ancient Indian religion of India is doomed and if
Christianity does not step in, whose fault will it be? That
religion is still professed by at least a hundered and million
20

of human sould and yet i do not shrink from saying that the
religion is dying or dead....- "Max Muller and his
contemporaries" Papers read at seminar held at the
R.K.Mission Kolkata 15-15/12/2000.Pg.207-208) Bg H$m¶©H$mo

A§Om‘ XoZoHo$ hoVwgo qhXþAm|‘| ^rVago gwYmaH$s hdm MbmZoHo$ Z¶o n§W ^r
MbdmE JE Wo.
¶o Wo ‘yb hoVw h‘| bm¶~bHo$g H$aZoH$mo {dde H$a XoZoH$s gr‘m VH$
CH$gmZoHo$. BZ g^r gwYmamdmXr ì¶{º$¶m|Ho$ à^md‘| AmH$a H$agZXmg ‘yiOr
Zm‘H$ ^yVH$mb‘| nw{ï>‘mJu¶ n[admaHo$ hr EH$ ¶wdmZ AZw¶m¶rZo "g˶àH$me'
Zm‘H$ n{ÌH$m‘| "The primitive religion of the Hindus and the
present heterodox opinions" boI Ûmam nw{ï>‘mJu¶ {gÕm§Vm|H$mo
nmI§S>nyU© {XImVo hþE VËH$mbrZ AZw¶m¶rdJ© Ed§ AmMm¶m]Ho$ ì¶{º$JV
AmMaUH$s qZXm Ûmam nw{ï>‘mJu¶ {gÕm§Vm|H$mo nmI§S>nyU© {XIbmVo hþE g§àXm¶H$s
Kmoa qZXm H$s. ¶XþZmWOr d«OaËZbmbOr ‘hmamOZo "ñdY‘©dY©H$$ Ed§
g§e¶moÀN>oXH$' Zm‘bH$ boIm|H$s e¥§Ibmgo VËH$mbrZ "Mm~yH$' Zm‘H$ n{ÌH$m‘|
¶Ú{n CZ ^«m§{V‘ybH$ {dMmam|Ho$ CÎma XoZoH$m à¶ËZ {H$¶m, na§Vw g’$bVm Z
{‘bZona Amjon-à˶mjonH$s e¥§IbmH$mo AmJo Z ~T>mVo hþE VËH$mbrZ {~«{Q>e
ݶm¶b¶‘| "bmB~bHo$g' AWm©V² H$agZXmg ‘ybOrHo$ boIm| Ûmam AnZr
‘mZhmZr hmoZoH$m Xmdm {H$¶m. Bg àH$ma ì¶{º$JV AmMm¶m}{MV ‘¶m©Xm‘| hþE
‘mZhmZrHo$ XmdoH$m Xþîn[aUm‘ ¶h Am¶m {H$ ݶm¶mb¶‘| VXþnam§V hþE Amjonà˶mjon Ed§ gmjm|Ho$ n[aUm‘ñdê$n ì¶{º$JV MMm©Zo g§nyU© gåàXm¶H$mo ~XZm‘
H$aZoH$m ñdê$n YmaU H$a {b¶m.
Xþ^m©½¶demV² ݶm¶b¶‘| hþE Ho$gHo$ Q´>m¶bHo$ Xm¡amZ nw{ï>‘mJu¶
AZw¶m¶r¶m|Ho$ AmMaU Ed§ E{dS>pÝggH$m Cn¶wº$ à˶wÎma Z Xo nmZoHo$ H$maU
^JdËg‘n©UHo$ {Xì¶ {gÕmÝVH$mo AZ¡{VH$ ì¶{^MmaH$mo àmoËgm{hV H$aZodmbo
{gÕmÝVHo$ ê$n‘| ~VmVo hþE gd©Wm {dH¥$V ñdê$n‘| ì¶m»¶m{¶V H$a {X¶m J¶m.
{H$gr ^r ì¶{º$H$m AZ¡{VH$ AmMaU Mmho dmo gm‘mݶ ‘Zwî¶ hmo, AWdm {H$gr
^r D§$Mo nXna AmgrZ ‘hmZw^md/Jwé/AmMm¶© Am{X hm|, Adí¶ hr X§S>Zr¶
AnamY hmoVm h¡; na§Vw EH$ ì¶{º$Ho$ AmMaUH$mo g§nyU© gåàXm¶H$m ‘yb {MÌ ‘mZ
21

boZm ^r H$moB© ~m¡{ÕH$ {ZU©¶ àVrV Zht hmoVm!
^maVdf©‘| Y‘©amÁ¶Ho$ Zï> hmo OmZona ‘wJbemgZ, {¼ñVrY‘m©dbpå~¶m|H$m {~«{Q>eemgZ VWm CÝhtHo$ Ûmam ñWm{nV ݶm¶àUmbrHo$ AnZo hr
Hw$N> AmXe© Ed§ ì¶dñWmE§ Wr§ {OZH$m Aݶ Ym{‘©H$ gmYZmàUm{b¶m|Ho$ gmW
gwg§JV hmoZm Amdí¶H$ Zht h¡. {dY{‘©¶m| Ûmam MbmB© OmVr ݶm¶àUmbrH$m
Ym{‘©H$ {df¶m|‘| hñVjon ¶Ú{n h‘|em ݶm¶àUmbrH$s Va’$go Zht, A{nVw
Ym{‘©H$ {df¶m|H$m {ZU©¶ Ed§ {ddmX hmoZona {ZîH$f© bm nmZoH$s ñd¶§
Y‘m©dbpå~¶m|Ho$ Ag‘m϶©H$m hr n[aUm‘ hmoVm h¡! {Zînj {ZU©¶H$Vm©, {Zanoj
Y‘m©ZwgaU H$aZodmbo AmMm¶©dJ©/CnXoeH$dJ©Ho$ A^md‘| hr {dY‘u
ì¶dñWmAm|H$m ghmam gmåàXm{¶H$ AWdm Ym{‘©H$ {ddmXm|H$mo gwbPmZoHo$ {bE
boZm nS>Vm h¡. ‘hmà^wHo$ ~mXgo boH$a AÚmd{Y g^r Ym{‘©H$ {df¶m§oH$mo boH$a
hþE AZoH$mZoH$ ‘wH$X‘m|‘| g¡Õm§{VH$ ‘¶m©XmAm|H$m ˶mJ {ZOr ñdmW©H$s ajm hoVw
H$aZo‘| AmE hmoZoHo$ CXmhaU nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$s na§nam‘| à{gÕ h¡§!
H$mZyZ Y‘}Va {df¶m|‘| g‘mO‘| gdm}n[a hmo gH$Vm h¡, na§Vw Y‘© Ed§
H$mZyZ; BZ XmoZm| hr g§MmbH$ ì¶dñWmAm|H$s {H$ÝVw AnZr-AnZr joÌ‘¶m©Xm
Vmo hmoVr hr h¡§. ‘hmamO bm¶~b Ho$gHo$ Xm¡amZ ñd¶§ ݶm¶mYre Ed§ dH$sb ¶h
H$h MwHo$ Wo {H$ do Bg gåàXm¶ Ed§ Y‘©go gd©Wm AZ{^k hr h¢.
(..."to test this he would assume the first of the alternatives
just named to be true. He would therefore read from
authorised works of Maharaj doctrine and practice, what
are the enormous an horrid canons of faith and morals, of
which his lordship was by the plaint assumed to be judicially
cognisant. Mr.Bayley: We are to argue the demurrer; the
facts are admitted. As to what the Vallabhachary sect is, we
have nothing to do. Mr.Anstey: I say you have, unless your
assumption is wrong; that his lordship has judicial
cognisance of those sects and doctrines. Chief Justice: I
say i have no such knowledge nor am i called upon to have
it." (Maharaj libel case.court proceedings. pg.15))

AmYw{ZH$$ d„^d§eO AmMm¶©dJ©Zo Bg {df¶‘| AnZm AmË‘{dídmg
22

Imo {X¶m hmoZogo hr AnZr gmYZmàUmbr‘| ݶm¶àUmbrHo$ hñVjonH$mo ñd¶§ h‘Zo
hr Am‘§{ÌV {H$¶m h¡. H$mZyZr joÌ‘| AmVr ~mV, OZVmHo$ hoVw; OZVmHo$ Ðì¶go
Am¡a OZVmHo$ à{V{Z{YV¶m ^JdËgodmê$n ñdY‘©Ho$ AZwð>mZH$mo h‘Zo AnZo
na‘Y‘©Ho$ ê$n‘| A~ ‘mݶ H$a {b¶m hmoZogo!
{gÕm§VHo$ ‘ybñdê$n Ed§ AmMaU g§~§Yr {ddmX Ed§ g§Kf©H$m gm‘Zm
ZmWÛmam‘| {~amOVo lrZmWOrH$s ì¶dñWmH$mo gmd©O{ZH$ ~ZmVo hþE Cg
ì¶dñWmHo$ hþE ì¶mnmarH$aUgo boH$a g^r nw[ï>‘mJu¶ ‘§{Xam|Ho$ "npãbH$ Q>oånb'
Ed§ "Q´>ñQ'> hmo OmZogo nw{ï>{gÕm§Vm|Ho$ {Z‘©‘ ZmeH$s b§~r H$hmZr nw{ï>gåàXm¶Ho$
B{VhmgH$m gd©Wm AñdrH$m¶© Ed§ A{ZÀN>Zr¶ {hñgm ~Zm hr hþAm h¡! Jmoñdm‘r
AmMm¶m]Ho$ Ûmam AnZr {ZOr godmH$mo gmd©O{ZH$ ~ZmZoHo$ H$maU, ‘hmà^w Ûmam
Cn{Xï> ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|Ho$ ~mao‘| AZw¶m¶rdJ©H$mo AZ{^k aIoZoHo$ H$maU VWm
AmYw{ZH$ n[aàoú¶‘| Vmo ñd¶§ ^r A{Z^k hmoZogo AWdm kmZ hmoZona ^r {ZOr
ñdmW©H$s ny{V© hoVw {gÕm§Vmo„§KZHo$ g^r ‘mJm]H$mo ñdrH$ma boZoHo$ H$maU ~mhar
OZVm‘| gåàXm¶Ho$ {dewÕ ñdê$nH$m ñdrH$ma Ed§ ñWmnZ ^r A~ Ag§^d hr
àVrV hmoZo bJm h¡!
AmYw{ZH$ Ed§ nyd©dVu ݶm¶mb¶m|‘| ‘yb{gÕm§Vm|H$mo àñVwV Z H$a nmZoHo$
n[aUm‘ñdê$n Ed§ ñd¶§ AnZo ì¶{º$JV AmMaU‘| ^r {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ Aܶ¶ZAܶmnZ Ed§ AmMaUH$s bwá hþB© b§~r naånamHo$ H$maU hr {dY‘u
‘mZ{gH$Vm¶wº$ ݶm¶àUmbr {H$gr ^r V϶H$mo gwZZo Ed§ ñdrH$maZoHo$ {bE V¡¶ma
Z hr hmo, Bg‘| H$moB© AmíM¶© Zht h¡! ݶm¶mb¶m|‘| {gÕmÝVH$s AàñVw{V,
OZVmHo$ g‘j ^r nyd©ñdrH¥$V YmaUmAm|H$m AñdrH$ma, ì¶dhma‘| dhr
{gÕmÝV{dnarV AmMaUm|Ho$ CXmhaUm|H$mo àmoËgm{hV H$aZoH$s ar{V-Zr{V Ed§
gmåàXm{¶H$/Ym{‘©H$ ñVana CR>o hþE {ddmXm|H$mo Zht gwbPm nmZoH$m Agm‘϶©
hr ݶm¶àUmbrHo$ gmW Ym{‘©H$ {df¶m|Ho$ Q>H$amdH$mo OÝ‘ XoVm h¡!
Eogr {dnarV n[apñW{V¶m|‘| gåàXm¶ Ed§ gmYZmàUmbrHo$ {dewÕ
ñdê$nH$mo gwa{jV aI nmZoH$m EH$‘mÌ Cnm¶ ¶hr h¡ {H$ à˶oH$ nw{ï>‘mJu¶
d¡îUd; Mmho dh AmMm¶©n[admaH$m hmo qH$dm AZw¶m¶rdJ©‘|; AmMm¶©MaUH$s
dmUr‘| ¶{X hm{X©H$ {Zð>m nZnm nmE VWm AmMm¶©dJ© ^r AnZo ñWmZ Ed§
J[a‘mHo$ AZwê$n {Z^uH$Vm Am¡a CÎmaXm{¶Vm ñdrH$ma| Vmo ‘mJ©H$m dmñV{dH$
23

CËH$f© gå^d h¡. Amdí¶H$Vm h¡ ‘ybmMm¶©dmUrgo n[a{MV hmoZoH$s VWm AnZo
ñdmW©H$s gwajmhoVw {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ gmW g‘Pm¡Vm Z H$aVo hþE gmåàXm{¶H$ {Zð>mH$mo
~ZmE aIZoH$s! {gÕm§Vm|Ho$ gmW g‘Pm¡Vm H$aZoHo$ ~OmE {Z^uH$ hmoH$a CÝh|
CZHo$ ‘ybñdê$n‘| àñVwV H$aVo hþE {H$gr ^r H$maUde AnZo Ûmam hþE
Ang¡Õm§{VH$ AmMaUH$m ñdrH$ma ì¶{º$JV ñVana hmoZm Mm{hE. Eogo {Zð>mdmZ²
AZw¶m¶rdJ© Ed§ CnXoeH$dJ©Ho$ hmoZona hr gåàXm¶Ho$ {gÕm§Vm|H$s ajm g§^d h¡.
AݶWm ^mJdVHo$ dMZmZwgma H${bH$mb‘| I§{S>V hþE Y‘©Ho$ 4 nmXm|‘|go g˶Ho$
gd©Wm {dewÕ ñdê$n‘| g‘{ï>Ho$ ñVana Ad{eï> ah OmZona ^r ñd¶§ h‘mao AnZo
hr AZ¥VmMaU Ûmam ì¶{º$JV ñVana g˶ I§{S>V hmo hr OmVm h¡!

rQq

24

VËH$mbrZ {~«{Q>e emgZ, B©gmB© {‘eZ[a¶m|H$m H$m¶©,
Y‘©n[aVd©Z; gm‘m{OH$-Ym{‘©H$ VWm amOH$s¶ n[apñW{V¶m§
{~«{Q>eemgZ Ed§ VËH$mbrZ amOZ¡{VH$ n[apñW{V
^maV‘| H$ånZramO ({~«{Q>e gm‘«mÁ¶)Ho$ g§ñWmnZH$s ^y{‘H$m
Am¡a§JPo~Ho$ {dÛofnyU© emgZHo$ H$maU àma§^ hþE ‘wJb gm‘«mÁ¶Ho$ nVZHo$ gmW
hr àma§^ hmo JB© Wr. ga OXþZmW gaH$maHo$ AZwgma Am¡a§JPo~ Ûmam ~S>o n¡‘mZo na
{H$¶m J¶m {hÝXy ‘§{Xam|H$m Xoeì¶mnr {dÜd§g, g‘ñV qhXÿAm| na O{P¶mH$a,
VrW©¶mÌmH$a, {hÝXÿ ˶m¡hmam|-‘hmoËgdm| na gmd©O{ZH$ à{V~§Y, O~aZ
Y‘©n[adV©Z Am{X {hÝXÿ àOm‘| ì¶mnH$ Ag§VmofH$m H$maU ~Zo. BZ Zr{V¶m|Ho$
’$bñdê$n ‘odmS> à^¥{V amOnyV {hÝXÿ [a¶mgVm|, OmQ>m|, {g³Im|, ‘amR>m| Ed§ Am‘
àOmHo$ {Za§Va {dÐmohm|go ‘wJb gm‘«mÁ¶ ImoIbm hmo J¶m. Zm{XaemhHo$
AmH«$‘UHo$ níMmV ‘wJb ~mXemh, e{º$embr gaXmam|Ho$ hmW‘| ‘mÌ EH$
H$R>nwVbr ~ZH$a ah J¶m Wm, {Ogo AÝVV… ‘amR>m noedmH$m g§ajU ñdrH$maZm
nS>m! {H$ÝVw Ah‘Xemh AãXmbrHo$ AmH«$‘U Ed§ nmZrnV‘| ‘amR>m|H$s hmaZo
H$maU Hw$N> g‘¶Ho$ {bE ‘amR>me{º$ bJ^J jrU hmo JB© Wr. AãXmbrHo$
AmH«$‘Ugo gånyU© CÎma npíM‘r ^maVH$mo ^mar j{V hþB©. OmQ>m|Zo amOm
gyaO‘bHo$ ZoV¥Ëd‘| ~S>r ~hmXþargo AnZogo H$ht A{YH$ {demb A’$JmZ
goZmH$m ‘wH$m~bm {H$¶m. gyaO‘bHo$ amÁ¶‘| AmZodmbo ‘Wwam-d¥§XmdZHo$ joÌ‘|
AãXmbrZo ^¶§H$a CËnmV ‘Mm¶m {H$ÝVw AãXmbr gyaO‘bH$s e{º$H$m X‘Z
H$aZo‘| Ag’$b ahm1-2.
CÎmar ^maV‘| ì¶má Bgr AamOH$ n[apñW{VH$m bm^ CR>mVo hþE B©ñQ>
BpÝS>¶m H$ånZrZo ~§JmbH$s gÎmm‘| AnZo n¡a ngmaZo àma§^ H$a {X¶o. O~ A§J«oOr
H$ånZrH$s e{º$‘| {XZm|{XZ ~T>moVar hmo ahr Wr,V~ ^maV‘| ‘wJb gm‘«mÁ¶H$s
e{º$ jrU hmoVr Om ahr Wr. ~§JmbH$s pñW{V Am¡a ^r ZmOwH$ Wr ³¶m|{H$
‘amR>m|Ho$ bJmVma AmH«$‘Um|go ~§JmbH$mo H$m’$s Am{W©H$ j{V hþB© Am¡a gmW hr
dh ~§JmbHo$ Zdm~H$s H$‘OmoarH$mo ^r àX{e©V H$a JB©. ’$bV… Zdm~
{gamOwÔm¡bmHo$ JÔrna ~¡R>ZoHo$ g‘¶ ~§Jmb Z {g’©$ amOZ¡{VH$ Ñ{ï>go H$‘Omoa hmo
J¶m Wm ~pëH$ Am{W©H$ Ñ{ï>go ^r H$‘Omoa hmo MwH$m Wm.
25

Zdm~H$s pñW{V‘| n[adV©ZZo ¶wamonr¶ ì¶mnm[a¶m|Ho$ Zdm~Ho$ à{V
ì¶mdhma‘| ^r n[adV©Z H$a {X¶m. ¶o ¶yamonr¶ H$ån{Z¶m§ ‘hO EH$ ì¶mnmar dJ©go
~XbH$a gm‘«mÁ¶dmXr bú¶H$mo ܶmZ‘| aIH$a {dñVmaH$s Zr{VH$s g‘W©H$ ~Z
JB© Am¡a ^maVH$s Am§V[aH$ n[apñW{V¶m|go VQ>ñW Z ahH$a CZ‘| H$m¶©ê$n‘| ^mJ
boZo bJr. (‘ܶH$mbrZ ^maV. ^mJ-2 ({X„r {díd{dÚmb¶/~§Jmb Ed§ B©ñQ>
BpÝS>¶m H$ånZr-S>r.EZ.Jwám& noO.741)

AV… g§{jáê$n‘| ¶h H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡ {H$ ‘wJb gm‘«mÁ¶Ho$ nVZ,
~§JmbH$s amOZr{V‘| gm{Pem|H$m g‘mdoe, àOmH$m amÁ¶emgZ àUm{b¶m|go
AbJmd, A§J«oOr H$ånZrH$m ~T>Vm hþAm ì¶mnma VWm A§J«oOm|H$s X{jU‘|
{dO¶Ho$ H$maU A§J«oO ì¶mnm[a¶m|‘| EH$ AmË‘{dídmg ^a J¶m Omo CÝh| ^maV‘|
EH$ e{º$Ho$ ê$n‘| ñWm{nV hmo OmZoHo$ {bE ào[aV H$aZo bJm. Bg àH$ma
Q>H$amdH$s pñW{V EH$ CJ«ê$n boH$a nwZ… C^aZo bJr.
VXþnam§V ~§Jmb‘| hþE Xþ{^©jZo BVZm ^¶§H$a ê$n YmaU {H$¶m {H$ Ho$db
nQ>Zm ZJa H$s gS>H$m|na hr à{V{XZ ^yIgo ‘aZodmbm|H$s g§»¶m 50Ho$ D$na
nhþ§M JB©. ¶hm§ Vmo ^maVr¶ OZVmH$s Eogr XméU Xem Wr, na§Vw dhm§ H$ånZrHo$
H$‘©Mmar YZ-g§M¶‘| ì¶ñV Wo. H$ånZrH$s gwì¶dñWm‘| gwYma H$aZm {H$grHo$
^r gm‘϶©go ~mhaH$s ~mV Wr. nXm{YH$m[a¶m|H$s ñdmW©nam¶UVm Ed§ YZbmobwnVmHo$ H$maU H$ånZrH$m ^r ~wam hmb Wm. AH$mbH$s {d^r{fH$mHo$ ~rM
A§J«oOm|Zo VrW©ñWmZm| na Ym{‘©H$ ¶mÌm H$aZona ^r à{V~§Y bJm {X¶m Wm. X¶Zr¶
hmbVgo ÌñV OZVm H$ånZramOHo$ à{V {dÐmoh H$a CR>r {OgH$m ZoV¥Ëd gݶmgr,
‘w»¶V… {hÝXÿ ZmJm gmYwAm| VWm {JardJ©Ho$ geó g§Ý¶m{g¶m|Zo {H$¶m. H$ånZrZo
BZgo {ZnQ>ZoHo$ {bE {Z‘©‘Vmnyd©H$ X‘ZH$m ghmam {b¶m VWm 1820 VH$
Am§XmobZH$mo Hw$Mb {X¶m J¶m. ¶h ^maV‘| A§J«oOm|Ho$ {déÕ àW‘ geó {dÐmoh
Wm; {OgH$m {MÌU ~§{H$‘M§Ð MoQ>OuZo AnZo Cnݶmg "AmZ§X‘R>'‘| {H$¶m h¡.
1772‘| Bg àH$ma H$ånZrZo ~§JmbH$m àemgZ AnZo hmWm|‘| bo {b¶m
Am¡a ^maVna {~«{Q>e emgZH$m Z¶m Aܶm¶ ewé hþAm. AnZo à^wËdH$mo ~T>mZo
hoVw OZab bm°S>© dm°aoZ hopñQ>¨½gHo$ Ûmam A{Y{Z¶‘ àñVm{dV {H$¶m J¶m {OgHo$
H$maU {~«{Q>e gaH$maH$m H$m°Q>© Am°’$ S>m¶ao³Q>g©Ho$ ‘mܶ‘go H$ånZrna {Z¶§ÌU
geº$ hmo J¶m. Bggo ^maV‘| amOñd, ZmJ[aH$ Am¡a g¡Ý¶ ‘m‘bm|H$s OmZH$mar
26

{~«{Q>e gaH$maH$mo XoZm Amdí¶H$ H$a {X¶m J¶m.
gwàr‘H$moQ>©Ho$ A{YH$majoÌH$s ñnï> ì¶m»¶m ^r Bg Eo³Q>‘| Zht hþB© Wr.
Bg ݶm¶mb¶H$mo A§J«oOr àOmHo$ ‘wH$X‘m|H$m ’¡$gbm H$aZoH$m A{YH$ma Wm, naÝVw
¶h ñnï> Z Wm {H$ A§J«oOr àOm‘| ¶wamonr¶ Am¡a ^maVr¶ XmoZm| hr gpå‘{bV h¢ ¶m
Zht. nwZ… BgHo$ ݶm¶mYre Ho$db A§J«oOr H$mZyZHo$ AZwgma ‘wH$X‘m|H$m ’¡$gbm
H$a|Jo AWdm ^maVr¶ H$mZyZH$m ^r à¶moJ {H$¶m Om¶oJm, ¶h ^r ñnï> Z Wm. nwZ…
H$m¢{gb Am¡a gwàr‘ H$moQ>©Ho$ A{YH$mam|Ho$ n¥WH²$ {d^mOZH$m à¶ËZ Zht {H$¶m
J¶m Wm {OgHo$ H$maU ^{d| XmoZm| g§ñWmAm|‘| H$bh n¡Xm hmo J¶m. g‘ñ¶m
3
¶h ^r Wr {H$ ¶h H$m°Q>© A§J«Om|Ho$ à{V A{YH$ njnmVr ad¡¶m aIVr Wr .
Bgr Ad{Y‘| ‘amR>m gm‘«mÁ¶H$m Zme hþAm Ed§ 19dt eVmãXrHo$
Ama§^‘| do g^r ^maVr¶ e{º$¶m§, Omo ‘wJb gm‘«mÁ¶Ho$ Adeofm|na IS>r hþB© Wr
Am¡a AnZr gÎmm Am¡a e{º$ ñWm{nV H$aZoHo$ à¶mg‘| bJr hþB© Wr, A§J«oOm| Ûmam
nam{OV hþB© Am¡a A§J«oO ^maVH$s gd©loð> e{º$Ho$ ê$n‘| C^ao. Eogo g‘¶‘|
^maV‘| H$ånZrHo$ AYrZ joÌH$mo nhbr ~ma "{~«{Q>e Am{Yn˶H$m joÌ' H$hm J¶m
Ed§ {~«{Q>e gaH$maH$mo ^maV‘| H$ånZrHo$ H$m¶m] Am¡a BgHo$ àemgZna nyU©
{Z¶§ÌU àXmZ {H$¶m J¶m.
VXþnam§V H$ånZr Ûmam g^r Cƒ nXm{YH$m[a¶m|Ho$ ê$n‘| {ZOr
ì¶{º$¶m|H$mo hr ñWmZ {X¶m J¶m; ¶mo½¶VmH$m ^r {dMma {H$¶o {~Zm. YmaUm ¶h
Wr {H$ ^maVr¶m|H$s Anojm ¶wamonr¶m|H$m Z¡{VH$ñVa A{YH$ D§$Mm hmoVm h¡;
n[aUm‘ñdê$n Cƒ nXm|na ^maVr¶m|H$s {Z¶w{º$ ~ÝX H$a Xr JB©. {ÛVr¶ YmaUm
¶h ^r Wr {H$ ^maV‘| A§J«oOr amÁ¶H$s ajmHo$ {bE ^maVr¶ goZmna A{YH$
{dídmg H$aZm C{MV Zht. AV… A{YH$m[aH$ A§J«oOr goZmH$m ^r ahZm A{Zdm¶©
Wm. Cgr àH$ma àm¶… AXmbVm|Ho$ H$mZyZ A§J«oOr H$mZyZm|Ho$ AmYmana ~Zm¶o J¶o
Wo {Oggo do nyU© ê$ngo ^maVr¶ n[apñW{VHo$ AZwHy$b Z Wo. AXmbVm|Ho$ OO ^r
¶wamonr¶ hr {Z¶wº$ hmoVo Wo àm¶… {OÝh| ^maVr¶ g‘mOHo$ Y‘©-H$‘©-ar{V-[admO
Am¡a ^mdZmAm|H$m H$moB© kmZ Z Wm. AV… ݶm¶mWu ^maVr¶m|H$mo ~S>r Agw{dYm
hmoZo bJr. A§J«oOm|Zo gmW hr gmW ^maVr¶ amOmAm|H$mo fS>¶§Ìm| Ûmam nañna
bS>dmZm ewé {H$¶m {OgHo$ MbVo ‘amR>o A§J«oOm|Ho$ {déÕ H$^r g§J{R>V hr Z hmo
nmE. 1813‘| H$ånZrH$mo 20 df©Ho$ {bE nwZ… AmkmnÌ {X¶m J¶m Ed§ ^maVr¶
27

ì¶mnmaH$m EH$m{YH$ma bo {b¶m J¶m. Bg ~ma ^maVdf©‘| {ejmàgmaHo$ {bE 1
bmI ê$n¶m dm[f©H$ ñdrH¥$V {H$¶m J¶m. ¶wamonr¶m|H$s Ym{‘©H$
Amdí¶H$VmAm|H$s ny{V©Ho$ {bE ^maVdf©‘| VrZ nmX[a¶m|H$s {Z¶w{º$ H$s JB©
{OZH$m doVZ ^maVr¶ H$mofgo XoZm {ZpíMV hþAm. hopñQ>¨½gHo$ H$mbn¶ªV n§Om~
Am¡a qgYH$mo N>moS>H$a gånyU© ^maVdf© A§J«oOm|H$s N>ÌN>m¶m‘| Am MwH$m Wm.
B©gmB© {‘eZ[a¶m| Ûmam A§J«oOr {ejmHo$ àMma-àgma Ûmam Y‘©ZmeH$s Hy$Q>Zr{V
^maVr¶m|H$mo emgZH$m¶©Ho$ ¶mo½¶ ~ZmZo hoVw ¶hm§ A§J«oOr {ejmH$m àMma
^r Amaå^ hþAm na§Vw nX{Z¶w{º$ ‘mÌ ZrMbr H$jmAm|na hr H$s OmVr Wr;
O~{H$ Cƒ nXm{YH$mar H$ånZrHo$ {ZOr ì¶{º$ hr hþAm H$aVo Wo. Ym{‘©H$
Amdí¶H$VmAm|H$r ny{V© hoVw AmE nmX[a¶m|Zo ^maVr¶ H$‘©Mm[a¶m|H$mo ^r B©gmB©
~ZmZm àmaå^ {H$¶m. ZE ~ZmE JE B©gmB©¶m| VWm H$ånZrHo$ A§J«oO H$‘©Mm[a¶m|Ho$
~ƒm|H$s [ejmHo$ {bE H$ånZrZo H$B© ñHy$b Imobo. B.g.1715‘| ‘Ðmg,
B.g.1718‘| ~å~B© Am¡a B©.g.1731‘| H$bH$Îmm‘| B©gmB© ñHy$b ñWm{nV hþE.
A§J«oOm| Ûmam ñWm{nV {ejmì¶dmñWm‘| npíM‘r Xe©Z, AܶmË‘, npíM‘r
Z¡{VH$Vm, VH©$emó Ed§ A§J«oOr ^mfm gpå‘{bV Wr.
1813Ho$ ~mX {‘eZ[a¶m|H$mo Iwbr Ny>Q> Xo Xr JB©. A~VH$ ~S>o
O‘tXmam|H$m EH$ dJ© A§J«oOm|H$m g‘W©H$ ~Z MwH$m Wm. A§J«oOm|H$s A^yVnyd©
g’$bVmgo à^m{dV ¶h dJ© A~ ^maVr¶ g‘mOH$mo ho¶Ñ{ï>go XoIZo bJm Wm Ed§
A§J«oOr AmMma-{dMma J«hU H$aZo‘| loð>VmH$m AZw^d H$aZo bJm. {‘eZar H$m¶©
àma§^ hmoZogo Bg à{H«$¶m‘| Am¡a ^r VoOr AmB©. {‘eZ[a¶m|Zo g‘mOgodmH$mo B©gmB©
Y‘©Ho$ àMmaH$m ‘mܶ‘ ~Zm {b¶m {OgHo$ AÝVJ©V B©gmB© {‘eZ[a¶m|Zo AnZo
ñHy$b, AZmWmb¶, Am¡fYmb¶ Am{X ñWm{nV {H$¶o.
{‘eZar ñHy$b-H$moboOm|H$s A§J«oOr [ejmnÕ{VHo$ H$maU bmoJm|H$mo
gaH$mar Zm¡H$[a¶m§ AmgmZrgo {‘bVr Wt {Oggo B©gmB©Y‘©Ho$ àMma‘| ^r ‘XX
{‘br. nwZ… A§J«oOr Hy$Q>Zr{Vkm|Zo ¶h ^r g‘P {b¶m Wm {H$ ^maVdf©‘| {~«{Q>e
gm‘«mÁ¶H$mo H$m¶‘ aIZoHo$ {bE ¶h Amdí¶H$ Wm {H$ ¶hm§Ho$ {Zdmgr AnZr
g§ñH¥${V Am¡a gä¶VmH$mo ^ybH$a A§J«oOr g§ñH¥${V Am¡a gä¶VmH$mo J«hU H$ab|.
dmñVd‘| hþAm ^r ¶hr {H$ ZB© ì¶dñWmHo$ à{V AmH$[f©V hþB© OZVm A§J«oOr
^mfmHo$ gmW-gmW AkmVê$ngo Bg Xoe‘| A§J«oOr gä¶Vm Am¡a g§ñH¥${V ’¡$bZo
28

bJr Am¡a eZ¡…-eZ¡… bmoJ AnZr gä¶Vm Am¡a g§ñH¥${VH$mo ^ybZo bJo.
{ejmàMmaHo$ {bE H$ånZrH$mo Omo YZ {X¶m OmVm Wm, dh ^r Ho$db A§J«oOr
{ejmHo$ àMma‘| hr 춶 {H$¶m OmVm Wm {Oggo g§ñH¥$V Ed§ Aa~rHo$ H$moboO
Yrao-Yrao ‘hËdhrZ hmoZo bJo. AVEd A~ ¶mo½¶VmHo$ ñWmZna Y‘©H$mo nXH$m
AmYma ~Zm¶m OmZo bJm.
Omo H$moB© ^r ^maVr¶ B©gmB©Y‘©H$mo AnZm boVm Wm, CgH$s nXmoÞ{V H$a
Xr OmVr Wr; O~{H$ ^maVr¶Y‘©H$m AZwnmbZ H$aZodmboH$mo g^r àH$mago
An‘m{ZV {H$¶m OmVm Wm. Bggo ^maVr¶ OZgmYmaUHo$ ~rM A§J«oOm|Ho$ à{V
Ym{‘©H$ Ag{hîUwVm CËnÞ hmo JB© Wr. A§J«oOr emgH$m|Zo B©gmB© Y‘©Ho$ àMmaàgma‘| B©gmB© {‘eZ[a¶m|Ho$ à^md‘| AmH$a AZoH$ joÌm|H$s OZOmVr¶ g§ñH¥${VH$mo
~MmZoHo$ Zm‘na CÝh| g§a{jV joÌ Kmo{fV H$a {X¶m. ¶hm§ Ho$db B©gmB© {‘eZar
hr g‘mOgodr g§ñWmE§ ñWm{nV H$a gH$Vr Wr, Aݶ ^maVr¶ Zht. Eogo joÌm|Ho$
{Zdmgr {hÝXþAm|H$s ‘w»¶Ymam‘| ^br^m§{V g‘m{hV hr Zht hþE Wo; AV… nydm}Îma
^maV, ‘ܶ^maV Ed§ Am§Y«Ho$ nd©Vr¶-OZOmVr¶ joÌm|‘| {‘eZ[a¶m|H$mo n¶m©á
g’$bVm àmá hþB©. X{jU^maV‘| ‘Nw>Amam|, XñVH$mam| Am¡a ‘OXÿam|H$s pñW{V d
‘moQo Vm¡ana ^maVH$s Añn¥í¶ Om{V¶m|H$s pñW{V A˶§V X¶Zr¶ Wr. BZ‘|go T>oam|
bmoJ B©gmB© {‘eZ[a¶m|Ho$ à^md‘| Am JE.
{‘eZ[a¶m|Zo ^r ^maVr¶ g‘mOH$s VËH$mbrZ àM{bV Hw$ar{V¶m|H$m
~T>m-MT>mH$a dU©Z {H$¶m. H$‘©H$m§S>, OmXÿ-Q>moZm, new~br, Za~{b,
A§Y{dídmg, gVràWm, XodXmgràWm, ~mb{ddmh, naXmàWm, Om{VdmX,
Añn¥í¶Vm, {dYdmAm|H$m CËnrS>Z Am{XHo$ {MÌm|Ho$ ‘mܶ‘go ¶wamon‘| YZ
EH${ÌV H$aZo hoVw àmonoJ|S>m Mbm¶m J¶m. ^maVr¶emóm|H$s Aܶ¶Z naånamH$mo
g‘má H$aVo hþE àM{bV Hw$ar{V¶m|H$mo hr gZmVZY‘©H$m dmñV{dH$ {MÌ ~VmVo
hþE AÝWm^md àM{bV {H$¶m J¶m {H$ {Oggo Aܶ¶ZhrZ àOm AnZr hr
g§ñH¥${V Ed§ gä¶VmH$s Ûofr ~Z OmE4. H$mZyZ Ûmam BgH$m {ZfoY gd©àW‘
{d{b¶‘ d|qQ>H$Zo hr {H$¶m {OgH$m g‘W©Z amOm am‘‘mohZ amo¶ Am{X
g‘mOgwYmaH$m|Zo gZ² 1829‘| {H$¶m.
Bg n[adV©ZZo ^maVr¶m|Ho$ õX¶‘| AnZr gä¶VmHo$ à{V hrZ^mdZm
CËnÞ H$a Xr. A§J«oOr gä¶VmH$s MH$mMm¢Ygo à˶oH$ ^maVr¶ dñVw/ì¶{º$/
29

naånam/Y‘© - AZmXaH$s Ñ{ï>go XoIr OmZo bJr. n[aUm‘ñdê$n ^maVr¶m|H$s
‘m¡{bH$Vm Am¡a {dMmañdVÝÌVm Yrao-Yrao g‘má hmoZo bJr. nmíMm˶
àUmbrna T>bm hþAm ^maVr¶ ZmJ[aH$ à˶oH$ {Xem‘| ~mob-Mmb, ImZ-nmZ,
nhZmdm, {dMma Am{X‘| A§J«oOm|H$m AÝYmZwH$aU H$aZo bJm. A§J«oOr g§ñWmAm|‘|
VXþnam§V nT>Zodmbo bmoJ npíM‘go A{^^yV Ed§ npíM‘go AmZodmbr ha dñVw
Ed§ {dMmam|H$s àe§gm H$aZo bJo. BZ g§ñWmZm|‘| nT>Zodmbo ^maVr¶ {~«{Q>e
emgZH$mo ng§X H$aZo bJo Wo.
^maVH$s VËH$mbrZ nmaån[aH$ e¡j{UH$ ì¶dñWm‘| bmE JE
n[ad©VZm|H$m [anmoQ>© {d{b¶‘ ES>‘ Zm‘H$ ñH$m°Q>b¢S>go AmB© B©gmB© àMmaH$Zo
1830Ho$ XeH$‘| {bIm h¡. àM{bV g‘mOHo$ AZwHy$b àd[V©V ì¶dñWmAm|‘|
~Xbmd bmVo hþE OZVmH$mo e¡j{UH$ àd¥{ÎmAm|go ^r d§{MV aIm J¶m. B©gmB©
{‘eZ[a¶m|go VmËn¶© h¡ B©gmB©Y‘©Ho$ àMma-àgma‘| g§b¾ ì¶{º$ AWdm g§ñWmE§.
BZ g§ñWmAm|Zo Ed§ {‘eZar ì¶{º$¶m|Zo ^maV AmZogo nyd© ¶wamonH$s jo{̶ OZVm
VWm {dMmaH$m|‘| ^r ¶hr n[adV©Z bmZoH$m à¶ËZ {H$¶m Wm {H$ÝVw àma§{^H$
eVmpãX¶m|‘| B©gmB©‘V ~hþg§»¶H$ Y‘©H$m ê$n Zht bo nm¶m. eVmpãX¶m| VH$ Mbo
Bg g§Kf©‘| AÝVV… ¶wamonHo$ àmMrZ naånamJV ‘y{V©nyOH$ Y‘©, gm{h˶ Ed§
naånamAm|H$m Zme hmo J¶m. ¶wamonH$m nmaån[aH$ Y‘© Aݶ ~hþXodmonmgH$ Y‘m]H$s
5-6
^m§{V g{hîUw Wm {H$ÝVw B©gmB©Y‘©Ho$ àMmaH$m|Zo CgH$m ^r A§V bm {X¶m .
B©gmB©¶m|Zo ~S>o n¡‘mZona amo‘Z-J«rH$ ‘§{Xam|H$m Üd§g àma§^ H$a {X¶m Wm.
àmMrZ nwñVH$mb¶ Zï> {H$¶o JE Ed§ J{UVk {dXþfr h¡no{e¶mH$s e¡VmZr OmXÿQ>moZm| Ûmam bmoJm|H$mo ^«{‘V H$aZoHo$ Amamon‘| B©gmB© àMmaH$m| Ûmam {Z‘©‘ h˶m
{deof C„oIZr¶ h¡. 312B©.g.‘| g‘«mQ> H$moÝñQ>|Q>mB©ZZo B©gmB©Y‘© ñdrH$ma {b¶m.
Bgr Zr{VH$mo AnZmVo hþE, ^maVr¶ gZmVZ Y‘©naånamH$mo Zï> H$aZoH$m ^r à¶ËZ
H$aZm àma§^ {H$¶m. ì¶mnma hoVw AmE hþE {~«{Q>e bmoJ {‘ÌVmnyU© ì¶dhma Ûmam
g^r àH$mago AnZo gm‘«mÁ¶H$mo ñWm{nV H$aZo hoVw à¶ËZerb hþE.
^maV‘| B©gmB©‘VH$m AmJ‘Z gd©àW‘ X{jU^maV‘| ‘mbm~ma VQ>na
B©gmB© ì¶mnm[a¶m| Ûmam hþAm. {H$ÝVw ì¶mnm[a¶m|Ho$ ê$n‘| Ho$ab AmE hþE gr[a¶mB©
B©gmB©¶m|Zo {‘eZar J{V{d{YH$mo ~T>mdm Z XoH$a Am‘ OZ‘mZg‘| Kwb{‘b OmZm
7
MwZm . AV… H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡ {H$ ^maV‘| {‘eZ[a¶m|H$m AmJ‘Z nwV©Jmbr
30

Cn{Zdoedm{X¶m|Ho$ AmJ‘ZHo$ gmW àma§^ hþAm. {H$ÝVw Bg H$mb‘| ^r {‘eZar
àMmaH$ AnZo nydm©J«hHo$ H$maU {H$gr ^r àH$maH$s ‘y{V©nyOmH$mo e¡VmZrS>o‘mo{ZH$ hr ‘mZVo Wo. Xþ^m©½¶de ¶hr AdYmaUm ~hþV bå~o g‘¶VH$ {Q>H$s
ahr d AmO ^r ApñVËd‘| h¡8.
nwV©Jmbr B©gmB© {‘eZar ^maVHo$ bmoJm|H$m Y‘©n[adV©Z H$aZoH$s {Xem‘|
AJ«ga hþE. 1540Ho$ níMmV JmoAm‘| à{V-gwYmadmXr {dMmaYmam Ed§
OogwBQ>m|Ho$ AmJ‘Zgo Y‘©n[adV©ZH$s J{V{d{Y¶m|‘| VoOr AmB©. {‘eZ[a¶m|H$mo
gdm©{YH$ g’$bVm JmoAm‘| {‘br Ohm§ 1600 B©.g. VH$ Xmo-{VhmB© OZg§»¶m
B©gmB© ~Z MwH$s Wr. E.Ho$.{à¶mobH$a Ûmam {b{IV "JmoAm Bpݳd{PeZ' Zm‘H$
nwñVH$‘| BgH$m {dñVmago dU©Z {H$¶m J¶m h¡. H$ånZramO‘| ^maVr¶m|H$m
Y‘mªVaU Z¶m Zht Wm. {H$ÝVw 1813Ho$ ~mX Bg H$m¶©H$mo gaH$mar Aml¶ àmá
Wm. ñnï>ê$ngo {~«{Q>e gaH$ma ^r ^maVr¶m|Ho$ à{V Bgr Xþ^m©dZmgo J«{gV Wr.
OmoZ ‘wB©a Omo 1828‘| H$ånZrHo$ {g{db A’$gaHo$ ê$n‘| H$bH$Îmm Am¶m Wm;
Zo dmamUgrHo$ n§{S>Vm|go g§ñH¥$V emóm|H$m Aܶ¶Z {H$¶m VWm Eogr H$B© ~mVm|H$mo
EH${ÌV {H$¶m {OÝh| dmo {hÝXÿY‘©Ho$ {déÕ EH$ eómJma ‘mZVm Wm. Bgr Xm¡amZ
{d{b¶‘ H¡$aoHo$ ZoV¥Ëd‘| {‘eZ[a¶m|H$m EH$ JwQ> ~mB©~bHo$ g§ñH¥$V AZwdmX‘|
à¶mgaV Wm. BZH$m ‘mZZm Wm {H$ ^maVr¶ AnZo Ym{‘©H$J«§Wm|H$mo Bgr{bE n{dÌ
‘mZVo h¢ ³¶m|{H$ do g§ñH¥$V ^mfm‘| h¡. {d{b¶‘ H¡$aoH$s ‘¥Ë¶wHo$ ~mX ^r ¶h H$m¶©
Omar ahm {Ogo {bIVo hþE 1861‘| ‘mo{Z¶a {d{b¶ågZo H$hm:
"That when it has been, so to speak,
Baptised and thoroughly penetrated with the
spirit of Christianity, it will probably be found;
next to Hebrew and Greek, the most expressive
vehicle of Christian truth." ''Encounter with
Sanskrit Pandits''- History of Hindu Christians by
Sitaram Goyal, pg-54)

OmoZ ‘wB©aZo "‘Vnarjm' Zm‘H$ EH$ g§ñH¥$V nwñVH$ {bI B©gmB©‘VHo$
àMma Ed§ {hÝXÿ ‘mݶVmAm|Ho$ IÊS>ZH$m à¶mg {H$¶m. {H$ÝVw gw~mOr ~mny, haM§Ð
VmaH$n§MmZZ, ZrbH§$R> Jmoao, gmo‘ZmW n§{S>V Am{X ^maVr¶ {dÛmZm| Ûmam
‘VnarjmH$m nwZ… I§S>Z {H$¶m J¶m VWm B©gmB© ‘mݶVmAm|na àíZ{M• IS>o {H$¶o
31

JE. BZ g^r KQ>ZmH«$‘m|H$m ^maVr¶ OZ‘mZgna A˶§V Jham à^md nS>m. EH$
Amoa Ohm§ BZ J{V{d{Y¶m|go ^maVr¶ Ym{‘©H$ àOmOZm|‘| Ag§Vmof ~T> ahm Wm
dht EH$ Amoa EH$ Eogo dJ©H$m {Z‘m©U hmoZo bJm Omo ^maVr¶ hmoVo hþE ^r ha Cg
dñVw, àWm, naånam, g§ñH¥${V Am{XH$mo K¥Um Ed§ hrZ^mdZmgo XoIZo bJm
{OgH$m ‘yb ^maVr¶ Wm. BgZo EH$ Eogo gwYmamdmXr dJ©H$mo Oݶ {X¶m Omo {H$
H$ånZramOHo$ ñHy$b-H$moboOm|‘| Ed§ gmd©O{ZH$ gaH$mar nQ>bna hmoZodmbo
^maVr¶ gä¶Vm-g§ñH¥${VHo$ XþîàMma Ed§ H$Q>mjgo jwãY hmo ^maVr¶ g‘mO‘|
gwYma bmZm Mmh ahm Wm. Eogr XþadñWm‘| OÝ‘m hþAm VËH$mbrZ ¶wdmdJ© Adí¶
hr BZgo gm‘m{OH$, ‘mZ{gH$, emar[aH$, Am{W©H$ Ed§ amOH$s¶ê$ngo à^m{dV
Wm {OgHo$ Xþîn[aUm‘de gZmVZ {hÝXÿ n[admam|‘| OÝ‘o hþE hmoZona ^r
An{R>VdJ© ^r {hÝXÿY‘© Ed§ naånamAm|H$mo gwYmaZoH$s ~mV| H$aZo bJ J¶m!!!
{Q>ßnUr:
(1) But the Jat peasantry were determined that it was over their corpses
that the ravager should enter the scared capital of Braj. 8 miles north
of Mathura, Jawahar singh barred the invader's path with less than
10,000 men and offered a desperate resistance (23, Feb/1757).
From sunrise the battle raged for nine hours, and at the end of it, 10 to
12 thousand infantry lay dead on the two sides taken together, the
wounded were beyong count. (Jadunath Sarkar, Fall of the Mughal
empire, volume 2, Fourth edition; New Delhi, 1991.pg.69)
(2) The Hindu bethelem now lay utterly prostrate before the invaders.
Early at dawn on 1st march the Afghan.........all the Vairagis perished
but Gokulnath (the deity of the city) was saved, as a Marathi
newsletter puts it. (Jadunath Sarkar, Fall of the Mughal empire,
volume 2, Fourth edition; New Delhi, 1991.pg.70-71)

(3-O¡gm {H$ Z§XHw$‘ma Zm‘H$ EH$ ~«m÷UHo$ ‘wH$X‘o‘| XoIm Om gH$Vm h¡. A§J«oOr H$mZyZHo$ AZwgma
CZna ‘wH$X‘m MbmZm Am¡a N>moQ>ogo AnamYHo$ {bE ’$m§grH$s gOm XoZm gd©Wm Aݶm¶nyU© Wm.
EH$ ~«m÷UH$s Aݶm¶nyU© ‘¥Ë¶wH$m g‘mMma gwZH$a gmam Xoe jwãY hmo CR>m Am¡a gd©gmYmaU
OZVm H$ånZrH$s Aݶm¶{à¶VmH$mo {Y¸$maZo bJr. (^maVH$m B{Vhmg ^mJ-2, à¶mJ
{díd{dÚmb¶. n¥ð>.324-325)
(4-The missionary assault on Hinduism dramatized the practice of Sati,
which had been an "exceptional act" performed by a minuscule
number of Hindu widows over the centuries, of which the occurence

32

had been exaggerated in the 19th century by Evangelicals and
Baptist missionaries eager to Chrisianize and Anglicize India. (p.xix.

Sati: Evangelicals, Baptist missionaries and changing colonial
discourse: Meenakshi Jain.)(
5- "In reality, in some places it took many blood-soaked centuries
before its opponents and their lineage had been sufficiently
slaughtered so that Christianity could asurp the reigning ideology.
Pagan Europeons and other fought it tooth and nail, in an epic and
heroic effort to maintain their own cultures and autonomy, in the
face of an onslaught by those whom the Pagans viewed as idiots
and bigots." (Introductin: The Christ conspiracy by Acharyas.) 6Everything about the old religions was demonic. As Augustine thu
ndred: " All the Pagans were under the power of demons. Temples were
built t demons, altars were set up to demons, priests ordained for the
service of demons, sacrifices offered to demons, and ecstatic
ravers were brought in as prophets for demons." The battlegroun of
demons, The darkening age. pg-18: Catherine Nixey.)
(7-"Christian iconoclasm pioneered by Xavier was no less ferocious and
predatory. It is true that due to geographical and historical factors,
Christian iconoclasm came to this country much later, was
confirmed to a much smaller area and spread over a much shorter
time-span as compared to the large scale and prolonged
inconoclasm practiced by Islam. But, it was no less criminal in its
inspiration. Moreover, Islam did not invent iconoclasm. It had learnt it
from the Bible and the Christian practice down the ages.": History of
Hindu Christian encounter, 1.Encounter on Euphrates; pg.15-16)
(8- So, when the church Fathers converted the Gods of the Greeks into
devils, the Gods of the Brahmans suffered a similar fate. St.Augustine
writes Proffessor Partha Mitter, sanctioned the idea that demons
persuaded the ancients to false belief. Some of the most virulent
attacks on Pagan Gods ........The christian travellers who started
trickling into India from the 14th century onwards could not help
seeing the hosts of hell in Hindu temples. The medieval Christian
image of Hindu Gods persists in our own times. Abbe Duboi, the
famous French missionary wrote....."Hindu imagination is such that it
cannot be excited except by what is monstrous and extravagant.
Max muller recmmended it as containing views of an eye-witness, a
man singularly free from all prejudice." History of Hindu Christian
encounter: 3-Hallucinations of the Devil's Devotees. pg:23-24)
33

gm‘m{OH$ n[adV©ZH$m Xm¡a
Ed§ H$agZXmg‘ybOr VWm H${d Z‘©XHo$ Cna
Am¶©g‘mO Am¡a B©gmB©Y‘©H$m à^md
19dr gXrH$mo ^maV‘| Ym{‘©H$ Ed§ gm‘m{OH$ nwZOm©JaUH$s gXr ‘mZm
J¶m h¡. Bg g‘¶ B©ñQ> BpÝS>¶m H$ånZrH$s nmíMm˶ {ejm nÕ{V, {‘eZ[a¶m|
Ûmam ^maVr¶ {hÝXÿ g‘mOH$m A˶{YH$ XþîàMma Ed§ H$Q>mjgo VËH$mbrZ g‘mO,
VéU-d¥Õ g^r AnZr Ym{‘©H$ Ed§ gm‘m{OH$ ‘mݶVmAm| na gmoMZoHo$ {bE
‘O~ya hþE. nmíMm˶ {ejm {OgHo$ H$U©Yma {‘eZar ~Zo hþE Wo; Ho$ à^md‘|
AmH$a {hÝXÿ gm‘m{OH$ aMZm, Y‘©, ar{V-[admO Ed§ naånamAm|H$mo {ZaW©H$Am{X‘-Hw$pÊR>V Ed§ emofUH$mar {dMmaYmamH$m n[aUm‘ H$hZm ñd¶§
gZmVZrAm|Zo hr Amaå^ H$a {X¶m Wm.
My§{H$ A§J«oOr {ejm‘| AJ«Ur ~§Jmb Wm Ed§ {‘eZ[a¶m|H$m H$m¶© ^r
gra‘nwa ~§Jmbgo hr àmaå^ hþAm. AV… gm‘m{OH$ n[adV©Z VWm Am§XmobZ
gd©àW‘ ~§Jmbgo hr ’¡$bo. ¶o Am§XmobZ VWm g‘mOgwYmaH$ {hÝXyY‘©go CZ g^r
~mVm|H$mo Xÿa H$aZm MmhVo Wo {OZHo$ H$maU gZmVZY‘© {‘eZ[a¶m|Ho$ H$Q>mj Ed§
XþîàMmaH$m ^mJr ~Z ahm Wm. AVEd BZ g‘mOgwYmaH$m|Zo ~hþXoddmX,
AdVmadmX, ‘y{V©nyOm Am{XH$s ^r qZXm H$s; O~{H$ ¶h XþîàMma B©gmB©
{‘eZ[a¶m| Ûmam {~Zm BZHo$ nrN>oHo$ g¡Õm§{VH$ njH$mo OmZo; ""~mBpãbH$b
{S>pñH«$ßeZ Amo’$ JmoS>'' H$mo AmXe© ‘mZH$a H$s JB© Wr.
amOm am‘‘mohZ amo¶H$mo ^maVr¶ nwZOm©JaUH$m OZH$ ‘mZm OmVm h¡.
1809‘| CÝhm|Zo EHo$ídadm{X¶m|Ho$ {bE "Cnhma' Zm‘H$ à{gÕ nwñVH$ {bIr.
S>mo.am‘Ymar qghHo$ AZwgma; ""àmMrZ Om{VàWm Am¡a ZdrZ ‘mZdVmdmXHo$ ~rM
Omo ImB© h¡, AÝY{dídmg Am¡a {dkmZHo$ ~rM Omo Xÿar h¡, ñdoÀN>mMmar amÁ¶ VWm
OZVÝÌHo$ ~rM Omo AÝVamb h¡ VWm ~hþXoddmX Ed§ ewÕ B©ídadmXHo$ ~rM Omo
^oX h¡; CZ gmar ImB©¶m|na nwb ~m§YH$a ^maVH$mo àmMrZgo ZdrZH$s Amoa
^oOZodmbo ‘hmnwéf amOm am‘‘mohZamo¶ h¡§.'' amOm am‘‘mohZ amo¶H$s AܶjVm‘|
IS>o hþE "~«÷g‘mO'Ho$ ¶moJXmZH$mo {ZåZàH$mago q~Xþgma {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡:
(1) ~hþXoddmX VWm ‘y{V©nyOmH$m {damoY.
34

(2) Z¡{VH$Vm na ~b, H$‘©’$b‘| {dídmg, gd©Y‘© g‘^md, {ZJw©U~«÷H$s
CnmgZmH$mo hr g˶ R>hamZm.
(3) Ym{‘©H$ nwñVH$m|, nwéfm| Ed§ dñVwAm|H$s gdm}ƒVm‘| A{dídmg.
(4) Ny>AmNy>V, A§Y{dídmg, Om{VJV ^oX^mdH$m {damoY.
(5) ~m§½bm Ed§ A§J«oOr {ejmHo$ àMma-àgmaH$mo g‘W©Z Am{X.
¶o g^r Eogo q~Xþ Wo {OZna {‘eZ[a¶m| Ûmam [hÝXyg‘mOHo$ ~hmZo
{hÝXÿY‘©H$m hr XþîàMma {H$¶m Om ahm Wm. Adí¶ hr {hÝXÿg‘mO‘| ~wamB¶m§ ì¶má
Wt, {H$ÝVw g‘¶-g‘¶na BZ ~wamB¶m|H$m {damoY H$B© {hÝXÿgåàXm¶m|Ho$ AmMm¶m]
Ûmam {H$¶m OmVm ahm Wm. dñVwV… BZ Hw$ar{V¶m|H$m H$moB© Ym{‘©H$ AWdm
emógå‘V AmYma hr Z Wm. Om{VJV ^oX^mdH$mo {H$gr ^r ^{º$‘mJu¶
AmMm¶m]Zo Ed§ AZoH$ d¡îUd, e¡d Am{X gåàXm¶m|Zo A‘mݶ Ed§ emó VWm
Y‘©H$m {damoYr {gÕ {H$¶m hr Wm ³¶m|{H$ dU© Ed§ Om{V; ¶o XmoZm| gd©Wm {^Þ
{df¶ h¢. gVràWm gånyU© ^maV‘| àM{bV àWm Wr hr Zht VWm n{VH$s ‘¥Ë¶wna
gVr hr hmoZm Mm{hE, Eogm {H$gr ^r Y‘©emó‘| H$hm J¶m Zht Wm. {H$ÝVw BZ
g^r gm‘m{OH$ Hw$ar{V¶m|H$mo Y‘©Ho$ gmW OmoS>ZoH$m Hw$pËgV à¶mg {H$¶m J¶m.
Hw$N> g‘mOgwYmaH$m|Zo {‘eZ[a¶m|Ho$ XþîàMmaHo$ à^md‘| AmH$a gånyU©
{hÝXÿY‘©H$mo hr AmS>o hmWm| boZm ewê$ H$a {X¶m. g‘mO‘| ì¶má emofUH$mar
Hw$ar{V¶m§ Vmo Wr hr {OZHo$ H$maU AÝVV… BZ g‘mOgwYmaH$m|H$mo ~hþXodmonmgZm,
{dJ«hmonmgZmgo boH$a g^r àM{bV Ym{‘©H$ AZwð>mZm|, nyOm{d{Y Ed§ Bg Vah
gånyU© {hÝXÿY‘©‘| hr ImoQ> ZOa AmZo bJr. ‘mhmË‘m Á¶mo{Vamd ’y$boHo$ ~mao‘|
{bIm J¶m h¡:
"Western education and missionary had
their effect upon the minds of these three friends.
To a Hindu who could read an English book with
any measure of intellegence, an entire world of
new thought had been now opened up.
Walvekar writes in his autobiographic sketch that
there were moments when he lost his faith in
Hinduism and thought of embracing Christianity.
But then it was decided by 4 friends after a
35

comparative study that in every religion there
were some dogmas that were to be accepted
as mere matters of faith. So they agreed that the
common principles which prevailed in all
religions should be followed in daily life."
(Mahatma Jyotirao Phooley by Dhananjay Veer.
pg:14-15.)

Hw$N> gwYmaH$ gånyU© Y‘©H$mo ZH$maZoHo$ ñWmna CZ Ym{‘©H$ njm|H$mo
ñdrH$maZoHo$ nj‘| Wo, {OZna {H$gr àH$maHo$ {‘eZar H$Q>mjH$s gå^mdZm Z
Wr. Bgo g‘Ýd¶dmXr Zr{VHo$ ê$n‘| ñdrH$mam Om ahm Wm. BÝht gwYmaH$m|‘|
AJ«Ur Wo; amOm am‘‘mohZ amo¶ Ed§ CZH$m ~«÷g‘mO. nadVuH$mb‘| Eogo H$B©
gwYmaH$ hþE Ed§ H$B© ZE g‘mO Ed§ g§ñWmE§ ~Zr§. ¶Wm na‘h§g ‘§S>{b¶m§,
àmW©Zmg‘mO, Am¶©g‘mO, Á¶mo{Vamd ’y$boH$m g˶ emoYH$ g‘mO Am{X.
ñdm‘r X¶mZ§X (1824-83)H$m Am¶©g‘mO ^r {‘eZ[a¶m| Ûmam àM{bV Y‘©Ho$
XþîàMmago O{ZV jwãYVmH$m hr n[aUm‘ Wm. ñdm‘r X¶mZ§XZo doXm|na AnZm
^mî¶ {bIm VWm Aݶ ^mî¶m|H$mo Ìw{Q>nyU© ~VmVo hþE g‘ñV àM{bV {hÝXÿ
gåàXm¶m|H$s qZXm H$s. X¶mZ§X gañdVrZo CZ g^r ~mVm|H$mo {hÝXÿY‘©go hr AbJ
~Vm¶m {OZHo$ H$maU Y‘© {‘eZ[a¶m|H$s ^Ëg©ZmH$m ^mJr ~Z ahm Wm. Bg
àH$maHo$ Ym{‘©H$ XþîàMmaHo$ MbVo naånamdmXr {hÝXþAm|H$s Amoago à{V[H«$¶m
AmZr ñdm^m{dH$ hr Wr, {OgHo$ ’$bñdê$n 1830H$s amYmH$m§V Xod Ûmam
ñWm{nV Y‘©g^m, {OgZo naånamJV àWmAm|Ho$ XþîàMmaH$m {damoY {H$¶m VWm
gmW hr nmíMm˶ {ejm; {deofH$a ~m{bH$mAm|‘| Bgo àmoËgm{hV H$aZoH$m
g‘W©Z {H$¶m VWm 1895‘| ^maVY‘© ‘hm‘§S>bH$m JR>Z BZ g‘mO gwYmaH$
g§JR>Zm| - {W¶mogmo{’$H$b gmogm¶Q>r, Am¶©g‘mO Am{Xgo na§namJV Ym{‘©H$
ar{V[admOm| Ed§ emóm|H$s ajm hoVw {H$¶m J¶m Wm.
g‘mOgwYmaH$m|‘| {dYdm{ddmh EH$ ‘hËdnyU© ‘wÔm ~ZH$a C^am.
‘w»¶V… g^r g‘mOgwYmaH$m|Zo BgHo$ g‘W©ZHo$ gmW hr Omoaemoago BgH$m àMma
{H$¶m. BgH$m H$maU ‘w»¶ê$ngo gVràWmH$mo boH$a {‘eZ[a¶m| Ûmam {H$¶o JE
A˶{YH$ XþîàMma‘| ^r XoIm Om gH$Vm h¡; {OgHo$ H$maU {dYdmAm|H$s
n[apñW{V C^aH$a gm‘Zo AmB©. 1852‘| JwOamV‘| "g˶àH$me'H$s ñWmnZm
36

H$aHo$ H$agZXmg ‘yiOrZo ^r {dYdm nwZ{d©dmhH$s {Xem‘| àe§gZr¶ à¶ËZ
{H$¶o. Hw$N> naånamdmXr {hÝXþAm|Zo {dYdm{ddmh Am{X g‘mOgwYmaH$m|Ho$
H$m¶m]H$m {damoY ^r {H$¶m {OgHo$ H$maU do ^r g‘mOgwYmaH$m| Ûmam H$s
OmZodmbr ê${T>dmXH$s ^Ëg©ZmHo$ ^mJr ~Zo.
{H$ÝVw ¶hm§ A~ ¶o ~mV {dMmaUr¶ h¡ {H$ BZ g‘mOgwYmaH$m|Ho$ g‘j
^maVr¶ {hÝXÿY‘©Ho$ {Og ñdê$nH$m {MÌU, ¶m ¶y§ H$h| {H$ XþîàMma {H$¶m Om ahm
Wm, dh dmñVd‘| {hÝXÿY‘©H$m ñdê$n Wm ^r ¶m Xþ^m©dZm¶wº$ ‘mÌ EH$
An{Zd©MZ!! Bg {dMmaH$m ómoV ¶h h¡ {H$ BZ g^r gwYmaH$m|‘| EH$ ~mV Vmo
g‘mZ Wr Am¡a dh Wr, ‘w»¶ê$ngo {‘eZ[a¶m| Ûmam Xr OmZodmbr H$ånZr
gaH$maH$mbrZ {ejm Omo {H$ ^maVH$s naånamAm|, Y‘© Ed§ g‘mOHo$ à{V
K¥UmH$s ^mdZmgo ^ar hþB© Wr. AWdm àíZ ¶h ^r CnpñWV hmo hr gH$Vm h¡ {H$
gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Ym[‘©H$ n[adV©ZH$s nohob H$aoZdmbo ñd¶§ d¡{XH$-nm¡am{UH$
emóm§o‘| d{U©V gZmVZY‘©H$mo g‘P ^r nmE Wo ¶m Zht? BZ A§J«oOr
nmR>embmAm|‘| A§J«oOr {ejUnÕ{VH$m ‘[h‘m‘§S>Z {H$¶m Om ahm Wm. fS>¶§ÌHo$
VhV doX‘§Ìm|H$m AZw{MV AW© àñVwV {H$¶m J¶m Ed§ ‘§Ìg§{hVmAm|H$mo Am{X‘
JS>[a¶mAm|Ho$ JrV H$h {X¶o JE! O¡gm{H$ ^maV‘| A§J«oOr {ejmnÕ{VH$s
{h‘m¶V H$aZodmbo ‘o³g‘ybaHo$ {bE H$hm J¶m h¡:
"Max Muller, perhaps the most well known
early sanskritist and indologist, although later in
life he glorified the Vedas, initially wrote that the,
"Vedas were worse than savage" and "India must
be conquered again by education....it's religion
is doomed." Thomas Macauly, who introduced
English education in India, wanted to make the
residents into a race that was, Indian in blood
and color, but English in taste, in opinion, in
morals and in intellect. " However, the famed
German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer
stated that the sanskrit understanding of these
indologists was like that of young schoolboys.
(Scientific verification of Vedic knowledge: by
37

David Osborn. pg-17)

H$ånZramOH$s BZ {~«{Q>e {ejU g§ñWmZm|‘| ¶h {gIm¶m J¶m {H$
Am¶©bmoJ ^maVHo$ ‘yb {Zdmgr Zht h¢ Ed§ ~mhar Xoem|go AmE Wo {OÝhm|Zo ¶hm§
nhbogo {dÚ‘mZ Ð{dS> gä¶VmH$mo Zï> H$a {X¶m. A§J«oOr emgZH$s àe§gm‘| ¶h
{bI {X¶m J¶m {H$ g^rH$mo AmPmXr XoH$a CÝh| Om{VdmXr Ed§ ^oX^mddmbo
bmoJm|go ‘wº$ H$aHo$ gwIr ~ZmZm hr CZH$m CÔoí¶ h¡. (àñVmdZm: Jwbm‘{JarÁ¶mo{Vamd Jmo{dÝXamd ’y$bo) {H$ÝVw Am¶© AmH«$‘UH$s ¶h {W¶ar H$B©
B{VhmgH$mam| Ûmam ""{S>dmBS> EÝS> ê$b''Ho$ {~«{Q>e àmonJ|S>mHo$ VhV ’¡$bmB© JB©
‘mÌ EH$ H$nmobH$pënV H$hmZr nmB© JB© {OgH$m g‘W©Z ñd¶§ S>m°.Amå~oS>aZo ^r
{H$¶m h¡.
Eogo XþîàMmaH$m VËH$mbrZ {e{jVdJ©Ho$ Cna Jham à^md nS>m.
g‘mO‘| AmB© {dg§J{V¶m|Ho$ {bE ~«m÷Um| Ed§ {hÝXÿY‘©H$mo hr Xmofr R>ham¶m J¶m
Wm. H$hm J¶m {H$ ~«m÷Um|Zo Om{Vì¶dñWmH$m {Z‘m©U ñd¶§ AnZo ñdmWm]H$s ny{V
hoVw VWm g‘mO Ed§ amï´>na AnZm Am{Yn˶ ñWm{nV H$aZo hoVw {H$¶m. BgH$s
à{V{H«$¶m ñdê$n g‘mOgwYmaH$ amOm am‘‘mohZamo¶, Ho$edMÝÐ goZ, X¶mZ§X
gañdVr Am{XZo ¶h àMma àmaå^ H$a {X¶m {H$ d¡{XH$J«§Wm|‘| Om{Vì¶dñWm Zht
h¡ A{nVw dUm©l‘Y‘©H$m dU©Z h¡ VWm ^oX^md‘ybH$ Om{VàWm AmJo OmH$a
{hÝXÿg‘mOH$m A§J ~Z JB©. {H$ÝVw g˶ ¶h h¡ {H$ {hÝXÿY‘©Ho$ ^«m‘H$ XþîàMmago
ì¶{WV g‘mOgwYmaH$ Om{V VWm dU©Ho$ emór¶/Ym{‘©H$ ñdê$n VWm
gm‘m{OH$ê$ngo BZHo$ {^Þ hmoZoH$s ì¶dñWmH$mo g‘P Zht nmE.
³¶m|{H$ doXHo$ AZwgma ""~«m÷Umo@ñ¶ ‘wI‘mgrX² ~mhÿamOݶ… H¥$V… D$ê$
VXñ¶ ¶X²d¡í¶… nX²ä¶m§ eyÐmo AOm¶V''(F$½doX.10&10&12) ~«m÷U-j{̶-d¡í¶
Ed§ eyÐdU©Ho$ Mma XodVm h¢ {OZH$m ì¶{º$‘| CÎm‘ OÝ‘-H$‘© Ed§ g§ñH$ma hmoZona
hr àdoe hmoVm h¡. g§ñH$ma Ed§ H$‘©go À¶wV hmo OmZona ~«m÷Um{X XodVmAm|Ho$
{Vamo{hV hmo OmZona Vmo ì¶{º$ OÝ‘‘mÌ J«hU H$aZogo VÎmX² dU©H$m H$hbm¶m Zht
1
Om gH$Vm!! g˶wJ‘| ‘mÌ h§gdU© hþAm H$aVm Wm. VXþnam§V Ûmna‘| Y‘©Ho$
{ÛnaH$ hmo OmZona dU©ì¶dñWmHo$ Mma {d^mJ hþE. H${b¶wJ‘| Vmo Y‘©Ho$ 6
A§Jm|Ho$ hr Zï> hmo OmZona Y‘©H$s ì¶dñWm emó‘| {^Þ ~VmB© JB© h¡. AVEd
g‘¶-g‘¶na emór¶ ì¶dñWm‘| Xoe, H$mb Am{XHo$ AZwê$n Y‘m]H$m {dYmZ
38

{H$¶m OmVm ahm h¡. BZ g^r {df¶m|H$m JyT> AdbmoH$Z {H$¶o {~Zm Y‘©H$m {dYmZ
Ed§ emóHo$ dMZm|Ho$ AW©VmËn¶©H$m ñdV§Ì{ZU©¶ ^r Xmof‘ybH$ hr hmoVm h¡. BZ
g^r gyú‘ ì¶dñWmAm|go AkmV aIo JE g‘mOgwYmaH$m|Zo Y‘©H$mo {~«{Q>eY‘©go
à^m{dV hmoZoHo$ H$maU EH$ "{H«$íÀ¶ZmBÂS'> ñdê$n XoZoH$m à¶ËZ H$aVo hþE
{¼ñVrY‘©H$s hmoS>‘| gZmVZY‘©H$s ì¶dñWmH$mo gwYmaZm Mmhm!!
Bgr hmoS>‘| kmZ‘mJ© à{Vnm{XV {ZJw©U ~«÷kmZnyd©H$ ‘mojH$s ì¶dñWm,
H$‘©‘mJm©Zwgmar ¶kê$n ^JdmZH$m CnmgZ, ór-eyÐ g{hV gdm©{YH$maH$ V§Ì
Ed§ nwamUàmoº$ ì¶dñWmZwHy$b n§MXodmonmgZ VWm EH${Zð> XodmonmgZHo$ {d{dY
ñdê$nm|H$mo OmZo-g‘Po {~Zm {¼ñVrY‘©Ho$ hr g‘mZ EH$ê$nVm bmZoHo$ à¶ËZ‘|
nwamVZ naånamAm|H$mo Ed§ g^r emór¶ {df¶m|H$mo AmYw{ZH$H$mb‘| H$pënV
ì¶dñWmV¶m g‘mOgwYmaHo$ Zm‘na K{Q>V H$aVo hþE amOm am‘‘mohZamo¶, X¶mZ§X
gañdVr Am{XZo ‘y{V©nyOm, ~hþXodVmdmX, AdVmam|H$m ñdrH$ma, VrW©¶mÌm Am{X
naånamAm|Ho$ doX‘ybH$ Zht hmoZoH$m àMma H$aZm Amaå^ H$a {X¶m VWm
doXm{V[aº$ nwamU-AmJ‘VÝÌ Am{XH$mo ^r ~«m÷Um| Ûmam ñdV§ÌV¶m ñdmW©ny{V©hoVw
{Z{‘©V ~Vm {X¶o! ‘y{V©nyOmHo$ {df¶‘| X¶mZ§X gañdVrZo ¶h H$hZm Amaå^ H$a
2
{X¶m {H$ O¡Zm| Ed§ ~m¡Õm|Ho$ à^mdgo {hÝXÿAm|Zo ‘y{V©nyOm H$aZm Amaå^ {H$¶m .
na§Vw dñVwV… 113 ~r.gr.B©‘| ho{b¶moS>moagH$m d¡îUd ~ZZm, 4000
df© nyd©H$s {dîUw‘y{V©H$m {d¶oVZm‘go {‘bZm, hS>ßnmH$s nwamVZ g§ñH¥${VHo$
CËIZZH$m¶©‘| 5000 df© nyd©Ho$ {‘Å>rHo$ nmÌm|‘| {edqbJH$m A§{H$V hmoZm VWm
180-170 ~r.grHo$ EJmWmop³bg H$m°B©Z‘| H¥$îU-~bam‘Ho$ ñdê$nH$m A§{H$V
hmoZm O¡Z Ed§ ~m¡Õm|H$s naånamgo H$B© df© nyd© hr {dJ«hmonmgZmH$s naånam
3
gZmVZY‘©‘| hmoZoH$s gmjr XoVo h¢ .
Aݶmݶ à‘mUm|go ñdV… {gÕ hr h¡ {H$ ^maV‘| d¡îUd, e¡dm{X
^{º$‘mJu¶ naånamE§ àmMrZH$mbgo hr {dÚ‘mZ Wr {OZ‘| e¡dn§Wr
{edqbJmonmgZmHo$ à‘mU Vmo à˶jê$ngo hr {gÝYwKmQ>r gä¶VmHo$ g‘¶go hr
àmá hþE h¢. {H$ÝVw ¶o g^r V϶ {~«{Q>e {‘eZar àmonoJ|S>mHo$ {bE A˶§V KmVH$
Wo ³¶m|{H$ BZH$m àMma hmo OmZogo ^maVr¶ g‘mOHo$ EH$OwQ> hmo OmZoH$m IVam Wm
{Ogo ""{S>dmBS> EÝS> ê$b''H$s Zr{Vna MbZodmbm A§J«oOr emgZ H$^r ñdrH$ma
Zht H$a gH$Vm Wm. AV… A{YH$go A{YH$ XþîàMmaH$mo ~T>mdm {X¶m J¶m. AV…
39

Eogr hr ~mVm|H$m M¶Z {H$¶m J¶m Omo Bg XþîàMma‘| ghm¶H$ hmoVr; ¶Wm {dYdm
CËnrS>Z, OmVr¶ ^oX^md, gVràWm, ~mb{ddmh Am{X. ¶o g^r ~wamB¶m§
gm‘m{OH$ Wr§ {OZH$m ‘w»¶ H$maU bå~o g‘¶go ‘wgb‘mZm| Ûmam CËnr{S>V
g‘mO Ed§ ì¶{º$JV Ah§H$ma VWm Ûofm{X ‘mZdr¶ XþJw©U Wo Z {H$ H$moB© Ym{‘©H$
H$maU O¡gm {H$ à{Vnm{XV {H$¶m J¶m.
ór Ed§ eyÐm|Ho$ à{V hmoVo Xþ충dhmaH$m ghmam boVo hþE ^oX^mdH$s
^mdZmH$mo ~T>mdm {X¶m J¶m. ¶h XþîàMma H$aZodmbo do hr bmoJ Wo {OZH$m
ñd¶§H$m g‘mO 15dt eVr VH$ {ó¶m|Ho$ à{V Kmoa {ZX©¶VmH$m ì¶dhma H$aVm
4
Am¶m Wm .
BZ g^r XþîàMmam|Ho$ à^mdgo Xoer [a¶mgVm|H$s àOm ^r ANy>Vr Z ahr.
Bg g‘¶ Am¡a§JPo~, AãXmbr Am{XHo$ AmH«$‘Um| Ûmam nr{S>V Ym{‘©H$àOm
npíM‘ ^maVr¶ [a¶mgVm|‘| ~g MwH$s Wr. ‘Wwam Am{XHo$ {dÜd§gHo$ H$maU H$B©
‘ܶH$mbrZ ^{º$‘mJu¶ gåàXm¶ AnZo Amamܶm|H$s ^JdÝ‘y{V©¶m|Ho$ gmW qhXÿ
aOdmS>m|Ho$ g§ajU‘| ah aho Wo. BZ aOdmS>m|Ho$ ^º$ amOmAm| Ûmam ‘§{Xam| Ed§
gmåàXm{¶H$ nrR>mYrídam|Ho$ Am{W©H$ Xm{¶ËdH$mo ^br^m§{V {Z^m¶m OmVm Wm
{Ogo dm{f©H$ bJmZH$s ^m§{V ^|Q> {H$¶m OmVm Wm. JwOamVH$s H$B© [a¶mgVm|‘| ^r
Bgr àH$ma ^{º$ gåàXm¶m|H$mo Aml¶ {X¶m J¶m Wm {OZ‘| dm„^gåàXm¶ à‘wI
Wm. BZ bJmZñdê$n ^|Q> XoZodmbm|‘| Omo Cº$ gåàXm¶Ho$ ^º$ hmoVo Wo, CÝh| Vmo
H$moB© Amn{Îm Zht hmoVr Wr, {H$ÝVw Aݶ Am‘OZVm {OÝh| amOmkmde bJmZ XoZm
nS>Vm Wm, CÝh| Bggo Amn{Îm hmoZr ñdm^m{dH$ hr Wr. ¶h Amn{Îm A§J«oOr{ejm
Ed§ {‘eZar J{V{d{Y¶m|Ho$ H$maU Am¡a ^r ‘wIa hmo CR>r.
Bgr Xm¡amZ g‘mOgwYmaH$m| Ûmam Y‘©gwYmaH$m ^r ^mar à¶ËZ {H$¶m Om
ahm Wm. ¶o g^r gwYmaH$, A§J«oOr XþîàMmaHo$ der^yV, ^maVH$s gm‘m{OH$
~wamB©¶m|H$m ‘yb {hÝXÿY‘©‘| {Z{hV g‘PVo Wo. JwOamV‘| {dYdm{ddmh VWm
ZmardmXr gwYmaHo$ àUoVm H${d Z‘©Xme§H$a VWm H$agZXmg ‘yiOr Wo. AV… àmMrZ
naånam Ed§ g§ñH¥${VH$m g§ajU H$aVm ha H$moB© {Og‘| ^{º$‘mJ©Ho$ gåàXm¶ ^r
Wo, BÝh| emofUH$Vm© àVrV hþE.
H$agmZXmg‘yiOr Ûmam AnZr BݽboÝS> ¶mÌmH$s ñ‘¥{V‘| {bIo JE
J«§WH$s àñVmdZmH$mo XoIZona CZHo$ A§J«oOm|H$s g§ñH¥${Vgo à^m{dV hmoZm ñnï>
40

àVrV hmoVm h¡:
""19dr gXrHo$ ‘ܶH$mb‘| O~ {~«{Q>e gm‘«mÁ¶ AnZr OS>o ^maV‘|
‘P~yV H$a ahm Wm V~ H$agZXmg‘ybOr ^maVH$s OZVmH$mo A§J«oOr gä¶Vm Ed§
g§ñH¥${Vgo {e{jV H$aZoHo$ {dMma H$a aho Wo {H$ {Oggo CÝh| gm‘m{OH$ Ed§
Ym{‘©H$ê$ngo gwYmaZo‘| gabVm hmo OmE. CZHo$ ‘VmZwgma B§½boÝS> A˶§V hr
gwYam hþAm Xoe Wm Ed§ dhm§H$s OZVm {~Zm {H$gr AݶH$s AnojmHo$ AnZo Xoe
Ed§ g‘mOH$mo gwMmé ê$ngo MbmZo‘| gj‘ Wr. AnZo CnH«$‘H$mo g‘má H$aVo hþE
CÝhm|Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ^maVH$mo AnZo Am{W©H$, gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ e¡j{UH$ ñVaH$mo
B§½boÝS>Ho$ g‘Vwë¶ ~T>mZm Mm{hE. AV… ñnï> h¡ {H$ dmo B§½boÝS> Ed§ dhm§H$s
gä¶Vm Ed§ g§ñH¥${Vgo ^r A˶§V à^m{dV Wo {H$ {OgHo$ H$maU CÝh| ^maVH$s
gä¶Vm Ed§ g§ñH¥${V ZrMo ñVaH$s àVrV hmoVr Wr. H$agZXmg H$hVo h¢:
" My object, however in saying anything
about it, is to make my countrymen
acquainted with some of the chief customs of
Englishmen, that they may be the more able to
maintain the interchange of social and friendly
cordialitics with the latter....It is my earnest
request that my countrymen should give a
patient and careful perusal to the volume,
which will I hope, create not only a desire to visit
the great and glorious land of commerce,
learning and benevolence but the more
important desire of raising themselves and their
country to the same level." (Karsandas Mulji by
B.N.Motiwala, Ch-2, pg.68

H$agZXmgHo$ {dMmamZwgma A§J«oOm|H$s gä¶Vm hr CÎm‘ hmoZogo CÝh|
g‘mOgwYmaH$s g^r àd¥{Îm¶m§ {~«{Q>e g§ñH¥${Vgo ñnYm© H$aZoH$s Ñ{ï>go hr àVrV
hmoVr Wr. ¶hm§ ¶h Adí¶ hr {dMmaUr¶ h¡ {H$ B§½boÝS>Zo ^bo hr AnZoAmnH$mo
amÁ¶emgZH$s Ñ{ï>go B©gmB©Y‘©go {Zanoj aIm hmoo; na§Vw dh ñQ>oQ> ñd¶§ CÝht
B©gmB© ‘yë¶m|Ho$ Cna IS>m hþAm Wm {OZH$m Aݶ g^r A~«m{÷H$Y‘m]go ‘V^oX
ahm Wm O¡go ‘y{V©nyOm, nwZO©Ý‘, B©ída VWm OrdH$m g§~§Y Am{X. BÝht
41

{dMmaYmamAm|Ho$ n[aUm‘ñdê$n {~«{Q>e-npíM‘r {dMmaH$m|Ho$ AZwgma
nydu¶Xoem|H$s g^r gä¶VmE§ Ed§ g§ñH¥${V¶m§ ‘yI©OZm|H$s Wr, {OÝh| do gwYmaZm
MmhVo Wo!
dñVwV… g‘mOgwYmaH$m|H$mo ^maVr¶ gä¶Vm Ed§ g§ñH¥${VHo$ à{V
AmXa^md aIVo hþE bå~o g‘¶H$s ‘wJbm|H$s Jwbm‘rgo Zï> hþE ^maVr¶
ñdm{^‘mZH$mo COmJa H$aVo hþE g‘mO‘| àM{bV naånamAm|Ho$ ‘ybH$mo Ty>§T>H$a
àOmH$mo Y‘©go [e{jV H$aZm Mm{hE Wm! A§J«oOm|Ho$ ‘yb CÔoí¶H$mo nhMmZVo hþE
CÝh| AmXe© ‘mZ boZona Vmo ^maVr¶ gZmVZY‘©, gä¶Vm Ed§ g§ñH¥${V‘|
n[adV©Z/gwYma bmZoH$m à¶ËZ Vmo ^maVr¶ àOmH$mo gd©ZmeH$s Amoa hr
Am‘pÝÌV H$a ahm Wm!
H$agZXmg ‘yiOr, Z‘©Xme§H$a Am{X g^r g‘mOgwYmaH$ Epë’$ÝñQ>Z
¶w{Zd{g©Q>r, ‘wå~B©go nT>o hþE hmoZoHo$ H$maU B©gmB© ‘Vmdbpå~¶m|Ho$ Hy$Q>Zr{V Ed§
Hw$H¥$˶m|go gd©Wm AZ{^k hmoZogo B©gmB©Y‘©go ^maVHo$ gmjmËH$ma VWm
{~«{Q>eamOH$mo daXmZH$s ^m§{V XoI aho Wo! Bgr d¡Mm[aH$ EH$VmHo$ Ûmam H$B©
gwYmaH$ EH${ÌV ^r hþE5. H$agZXmg ‘yiOrHo$ X¶mZ§X gañdVr Ed§ gwYmamdmXr
g§ñWmAm| Ed§ ì¶{º$¶m|Ho$ gmWHo$ nañna g§~§YH$mo AYmo{Z{X©ï> Vm{bH$m Ûmam
g‘Pm Om gH$Vm h¡.

{~«{Q>e JdZ©a
{¼ñVrY‘©H$m à^md
ga ‘§JbXmg^mB©
ZmZm^mo¶
‘{hnVam‘
ZrbH§$R>

H$agZXmg
‘ybOr

bú‘rXmg
Ir‘Or

‘mZdY‘©g^m

X¶mZ§X
gañdVr

Am¶©g‘mOHo$ ^mdr àdV©H$m|go à^m{dV

Epë’$ÝñQ>Z
BpÝñQ>Q>çyQ>go
XþJm©am‘ g§~§{YV

‘ohVm

Ya‘er

X¶mZ§X
gañdVr

H${d Z‘©X
42

BÝht g^r g‘mOgwYmaH$m|go ào[aV ^maVr¶ OZVm, g§ñH¥${V Ed§ gä¶Vm
6
Ho$ à{V H$agZXmg‘ybOr Ed§ H${d Z‘©Xme§H$aHo$ {dMma AdbmoH$Zr¶ h¢:
(1) H$agZXmg ‘ybOrHo$ {dMma:
(ómoV: Karsandas Mulji

- A biographical study by

B.N.Motiwala
Ignorance and Superstition
The Hindus as a whole were hopelessly
priestridden people and besides were highly
superstitious. The impact of western civilisation
made their intellect alert but they lacked the
essential courage of their convictions.....The
knowledge of the English language brought before
the people proper information of the whole world.
The eyes of the people got new lusture at seeing
new knowledge. (pg.6-7)
The benefits of Peace
The greatest advantage which English rule
had brought to India was peace. All had opened to
them a world of new ideas. Ideas of comfort had
arisen and standards of living had improved. The
sense of legal and political rights had been
created.... (pg.8)
The religious and moral state of the people
People were entirely ignorant about wherein
true religion consisted, who founded their religion
and with what object it was founded. They
considered their religion to consist in observing
outward formalities such as the putting of certain
religious marks, visiting of temples, going to
pilgrimages and the observance of rules of
interdining and intermarriage....(pg.10-11)
43

(2) H${d Z‘©Xme§H$aHo$ {~«{Q>eamÁ¶emgZHo$ CÎm‘ hmoZog§~§Yr {dMma
"People of different classes assumed a
hopeful attitude, and then tried to improve the
position of their country. People no longer felt
contented. Superstition, timidity, blind devotion,
ignorance, flattery; all these undesirable qualities
were on the wane. People were gradually imbiding
the virtues of divine discontent, hope, bravery,
industry, concentration, independence, love for
learning and self-respect." (Chapter-1, Karsandas
Mulji- A biographical study of B.N.Motiwala: pg.8)

{ZîH$f©V¶m g‘Pm Om gH$Vm h¡ {H$ ^maV‘| Y‘© Ed§ g‘mOHo$
nwZOm©JaUH$m {dMma H$aZodmbo g‘mOgwYmaH$ ñd¶§ hr {¼ñVrY‘©H$mo ’¡$bmZo Ed§
AnZoAmnH$mo g^r Ñ{ï>go gd©loð> g‘PZodmbo A§J«oOm|go à^m{dV hmoZogo ^maVr¶
Y‘©-naånam-g§ñH¥${V Ed§ gä¶VmHo$ dmñV{dH$ ñdê$nH$mo OmZo {~Zm hr {~«{Q>e
gä¶VmH$s hmoS> H$aVo hþE gZmVZY‘©H$mo B©gmB©Y‘©H$m hr ñdê$n àXmZ H$aZm Mmh
aho Wo! BÝht {‘eZar àmonJ|S>mgo à^m{dV hmo, ^maVr¶ g§ñH¥${VHo$ à{V hrZ
^mdZmgo ào[aV BZ VWmH${WV gwYmaH$m|Zo AnZo hr Y‘©-gåàXm¶m| Ed§
naånamAm|na bm§N>Z bJmZm àmaå^ H$a {X¶m {OgH$m {ZemZm JwOamV‘|
~hþàM{bV d„^gåàXm¶ ^r ~Zm!!
{Q>ßnUr:
1-Y‘©M涩¶m OKݶmo dU©… nydª nydª dU©‘mnÚVo Om{Vn[ad¥Îmm¡& AY‘©M涩¶m nydm} dUm}
OKݶ§ dU©‘mX²¶Vo Om{Vn[ad¥Îmm¡& (AmnñVå~gyÌ) EH$dU©{‘X§ nyd©{díd‘mgrX²
¶w{Y{ð>a& H$‘©-{H«$¶m{d^oXoZ MmVwd©Ê¶ª à{V{ð>V‘²&& gd} d¡ ¶mo{ZOm ‘˶m©… gd}
‘yÌnwamofOm…& EHo$pÝжopÝжmW©díM Vñ‘mÀN>rb JwU¡©{ÛO…& eyÐmo@{n erb gånÞmo
JwUdmZ² ~«m÷Umo ^doV²& ~«m÷Umo@{n {H«$¶mhrZ… eyÐmV² à˶damo ^doV²&&
(‘hm^maV.dZnd©) g‘mZ àgdmpË‘H$m Om{V…& g{V‘ybo VX²{dnmH$mo Om{V…, Am¶w…
^moJ…& (Jm¡V‘‘w{Z))
2- àíZ: B©ída AdVma boVm h¡, dm Zht? CÎma: Zht, ³¶m|{H$ AO EH$nmV²&...¶o ¶Owd}XHo$
dMZ h¢. B˶m{X dMZm|go na‘oída Z OÝ‘ boVm h¡ Am¡a Z H$^r earadmbm hmoVm h¡.
àíZ: Omo Eogm H$hVo h¢ Vmo g§gma‘| Mm¡~rg B©ídaHo$ AdVma hmoVo h¢ Eogm Ed§ BZH$mo
44

AdVma ³¶m| ‘mZVo h¢? CÎma: doXmW©Ho$ Z OmZZo, gåàXm¶r bmoJm|Ho$ ~hH$mZo Am¡a
AnZoAmn A{dÛmZ² hmoZogo ^«‘Omb‘| ’§$gVo Am¡a ‘mZVo h¢. (g˶mW©àH$me.C„mg 7)
àíZ: nwamUm|‘| g~ ~mVo§ PyR>r h¢, dm H$moB© gƒr ^r h¢? CÎma: ~hþVgr ~mVo§ PyR>r h¢ Am¡a
H$moB© KwUmjaݶm¶go gƒr ^r h¢. Omo gƒr h¢ dh doXm{X g˶emóm|H$s Am¡a Omo PyR>r h¢
do BZ nmnm|Ho$ nwamUê$n KaH$s h¢. (g˶mW©àH$me.C„mg.11))
3- An example of India's cultural exchanges with European countries is
found in the inscriptions on the Heliodorus column, erected in 113
B.C.E. by Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador to India, and convert to
Vaishnavism as well as the 2nd century B.C.E. coins of Agathocles,
showing images of Krishna and Balaram. These artifacts also stand
testimony that Sanatan Dharm predates Christianity. (Scientific
verification of Vedic Knowledge by David Osborn, Science of the
sacred.) Krishna (Vasudeva) and Balaram (Sankarshan) and
Ekanamsha, 3rd century BC, rock art petroglyphs with ancient
Brahmi inscription at Tikla, India. King Vrishni silver drachma, 1st
century BC which identifies the Vrishni clan of the Audumbaras,
found in Hoshiarpur, Punjab. The coin is at british museum, London.
India has Brahmi inscriptions about Sankarshana and Vasudeva
dating to 60-70 BC.)
4- Christian philosopher, Boethius wrote in The consolation of Philosophy,
"women is a temple built upon a sewer. Bishops at the 6th century
Council of Macon voted as to whether women had souls. In the
10th century Odo of Cluny declared, "The embrace a woman is to
embrace a sack of manure...." The 13th century St.Thomas Aquinas
suggested that God had made a mistake in creating woman.
.....Witch hunts were neither small in scope nor implemented by a
few aberrant individuals; the persecution of witches was the official
policy of both the Catholic and Prostant Churches. The Church
invented the crime of witchcraft, established the process by which
to prosecute it and then insisted that witches be prosecuted.....The
vast numbers of people brutalized and killed, as well as the impact
upon the common perception of God, make the witch hunts one
of the darkest chapters of human history." - The dark side of
Christianity by Helen Ellerbe. pg-137-138)
5- (A) A few months later when Swamiji (Dayanand) again visited
Bombay, Aarysamaj was established. It was april 10,1875. Besides
the businessmen there were some students of Elphinston college
among the first founder members. Among those who were to leave
their impact on history were Shyamji Krishna Verma and Ganesh

45

ShriKrishna Khaparde. Shyamji without fail called on Swami
Dayanand Saraswati whenever the latter visited Bombay....In this
way he prepared himself for the role of a missionary reformer. Shyamji Krishna Verma an unknown portrait by Ganesh Lal Verma.
pg-6)
(B) Reformer's Patronage
In the last quarter of the ninteenth century a reform movement
was started in Bombay by Vishnu Parsuram Shastri, Madhavdas
Rghunathdas, Karsandas mulji an others. These reformers were
greately influenced by Aarya Samaj which aimed at
emancipating Hinduism from the stifling shackles of Brahmanism
and purge it of the evil practices which had crept into its fold such
as untouchability, child marriage, enforced widowhood, sati and
idol worship.....To further their cause, the philanthropist reformers
offered financial help to brilliant non-Brahmin students, who would
h e l p t h e r e f o r m m o v e m e n t, t o s t u d y s a n s k r i t. . . .
(Ref:httss://archive.org/streams/shyamjikrishnava00verm/shyamjikri
shnava00verm_djvu.txt)
(C) On such objects as these the deceased spent large sums of money.
He refused with Mr.Karsandas Mulji, to do penance for his travels
over the Kfilapani. The deceased was a leading member of the
Budhivardhak Sabha, the Aryasamaj and the Theosophic
society/and he had a large share in the popular demonstration
made years ago by our Rate-payers' Association. (Ref:
http://archive.org/stream/dli.granth.116723|116723_djvut.txt)
(D) This reconsideration must also have been influenced by his
discussion in Banaras with reformers from the great cities. Before
coming to Banaras he already had talked in Kanpur with the
Brahmo Kshetranath Ghosh, 152 but in Banaras he he had his first
prolonged contact with representetive of modern Hindu reform
movements. Two prominent members of the Bombay commercial
classes, Jaikishandas Jivanram and Dharamsi, the brother of the
famous Sheth Lakhmidas Khimji, had talks with the Swami. They no
doubt informed him about Karsandas Mulji's fight against the
Vallabhacharyas, and his search for the true pre-sectarian Vedic
religion. They would also have spoken about the efforts and
organisation of the Prarthana Samaj in their city. They urged the
Swami to pay a visit to Bombay in the near future.
(Ref:http://archive.org/stream/DayanandSaraswatiJTFJordens/Day
anand%20Sarawati%28JTF%20Jordens%29_djvu.txt)

46

6- Mulji's ideas were shaped in the Elphinstone of the 1840s-1850s
where he shared space with the likes of Dadabhai Naoroji and
Mahadev Govind Ranade. The Elphinstonians, well versed in
western texts and the language of the new elitesm were favourably
positioned in the British-led administration. Mulji was no different; he
was mocked for wearing trousers which amounted to a classic
instance of Macauly Man. His reformism was first visible in public
domain in 1853 with the publication of an essay advocating
foreign travel, which was read in front of Buddhi Vardhak Sabha.
(Karsandas Mulji- Spontaneousorder.in)

rQq

47

nw{ï>gåàXm¶H$m
AmYw{ZH$$ ݶm¶màUmbrHo$ n[aàoú¶‘| à{V{Z{YËd
nw{ï>gåàXm¶Ho$ ‘yb {gÕm§Vm|H$mo lr‘hmà^wOrHo$ H$mbgo hr H$B©~ma
{d{^Þ ‘mܶ‘m| Ûmam {dnarV ê$n‘| àñVwV {H$¶o JE Wo. nw{ï>gåàXm¶Ho$
{gÕm§Vmona àíZ {M• bJmVm A§J«oOm|Ho$ emgZH$mb‘| hþAm EH$ ‘wH$Xm‘m Wm
"‘hmamO bm¶~b Ho$g'. Cnamoº$ {df¶‘| nw{ï>gåàXm¶Ho$ Z¡¶m{¶H$
à{V{Z{YËdH$m AdbmoH$Z H$aZm àñVwV gÝX^©‘| Amdí¶H$ h¡.
gZ² 1861‘| ‘hmamO bm¶~b ‘wH$X‘oH$s ewéAmV VËH$mbrZ ~moå~o
àogrS>oÝgrHo$ gdm}ƒ ݶm¶mb¶‘| hþB©. OXþZmWOr d«OaËZOr ‘hmamOZo
H$agZXmg ‘ybOrHo$ {Ibm’$ ‘mZhmZrH$m ¶h ‘wH$X‘m XO© {H$¶m Wm. bm¶~b
AWm©V² {H$gr ^r àH$maH$s {b{IVê$n‘| H$s JB© ‘mZhmZr ¶m PyR>r qZXm.
OXþZmWOr ‘hmamOH$m Amjon Wm H$s H$agZXmg ‘ybOrZo CZHo$ {Ibm’$
"g˶àH$me' Zm‘H$ EH$ JwOamVr AI~ma‘| ({XZm§H$: 21 A³Qy>~a, 1860)
qZXZr¶ boI {bIm. Cg boIgo hþB© ‘mZhmZrHo$ A§VJ©V OXþZmWOr ‘hmamOZo
H$agZXmg ‘ybOrHo$ {Ibm’$ ‘wH$X‘m XO© {H$¶m. Bg ‘wH$X‘oH$s gwZdmB©
bJ^J 24 {XZ Mbr Am¡a VËH$mbrZ gdm}ƒ ݶm¶mb¶Zo AnZm {ZU©¶ Am¡a
AmXoe Aà¡b 22, 1862H$mo {X¶m.
H$agZXmg ‘ybOr Ûmam {bIm J¶m boI (A³Qy>~a 21, 1860)
(‘yb JwOamVr boIHo$ AXmbV‘| àñVwV hþE A§J«oOr AZwdmXH$m qhXr AZwdmX)

""qhXþ nwamUm| Am¡a Aݶ emóm|‘| ¶h H$hm J¶m h¡ {H$ H${b¶wJ‘|
{dH¥$VY‘m] Am¡a {dY{‘©¶m|H$m CX¶ hmoJm Am¡a Eogo YyV© d {dY‘u, Y‘©go
{dnarV {dMmam|H$mo àmoËgm{hV H$aVo hþE à{VHy$b Y‘m]H$s ñWmnZm H$a|Jo.
qhXþemóm|Ho$ AZwgma H${b¶wJHo$ àma§^go nm§M hOma df© ~rV MwHo$ h¢. O¡go
qhXþemóm|H$m AdbmoH$Z H$aZogo hr ñnï> hmo OmVm h¡ {H$ BZ nm§M hOma
df©H$s Ad{YHo$ AÝVJ©V ~hþVgo ZE {dMma Ed§ Ym{‘©H$ ì¶dñWmE§
{hX§þg‘mOHo$ ^rVa CËnÞ hþB© h¢; {OÝh| ^«m‘H$ Ed§ nmI§S>nyU© hr ‘mZZr
Mm{hE. A^r Vmo nyao 400 df© ^r g‘má Zhr§ hþE h¢ ‘hmamOm|Ho$ nyd©O
d„^Ho$ OÝ‘H$mo. d¡îUdm|H$s nwñVH$m|‘| ¶h {bIm J¶m h¡ {H$ d„^mMm¶©H$m
OÝ‘ g§.1535Ho$ d¡emI ‘mhHo$ H¥$îUnjHo$ ½¶mahd| {XZ a{ddmaH$mo hþAm.
48

V~go 381 df© ì¶VrV hmo MwHo$ h¢. AÚmd{Y H${b¶wJHo$ àmaå^go 5000
df© ì¶VrV hmo MwHo$ h¢.
d„^mMm¶©H$m gåàXm¶ H${b¶wJHo$ AÝVJ©V àH$Q> hþAm h¡. {Og
àH$mago gmYwHo$ AZwJm‘r, am‘ñZohr, am‘mZ§Xr, eoOmZ§Xr VWm Eogo hr AZoH$
gåàXm¶m|H$m CX¶ hþAm h¡, Cgr àH$ma d„^mMm¶©Ho$ gåàXm¶H$m CØd ^r
H${b¶wJ‘| hr hþAm h¡. AV… qhXþ Y‘©emóm|Ho$ H$WZmZwgma ¶o g^r {dY‘u
hmo gH$Vo h¢. ¶XþZmWOr ‘hmamO H$hVo h¢ {H$ {Og àH$ma H$moB© ì¶{º$ ’$moQ>©Ho$
ÛmaHo$ ‘mܶ‘go dmëHo$ídaH$s Amoa ~T>Vm h¡ VWm H$moB© ^m¶IbmHo$
‘mܶ‘go ~T>Vm h¡, Cgr àH$ma doXm| Am¡a nwamUm|Ho$ ‘yb nmR>çH«$‘ AmJo ~T>o
h¢ Am¡a {d{^Þ ^m§{Vgo AbJ-AbJ hþE h¢. {H$VZm H$nQ>nyU© àñVmd h¡
¶h!! EH$ Ym{‘©H$ ì¶dñWm‘| Xg ¶m n§Ðh Cn{d{YH$s emImE§ Zht
{ZH$bZr Mm[hE!! Y‘© Ed§ Z¡{VH$VmH$m Ho$db EH$ hr ‘mJ© hmoZm Mm{hE;
grYm ‘mJ© {H$ {Oggo dmëHo$ída nhþ§Mm Om gH$Vm h¡. Cgo N>moS>H$a
^m¶IbmHo$ ‘mJ©go OmZoH$s ³¶m Amdí¶H$Vm h¡? à˶oH$ gmåàXm{¶H$
AZw¶m¶rZo Aݶ g^r gåàXm¶Ho$ AZw¶m¶rH$mo {dY‘u ~Zm {X¶m h¡ Am¡a
EH$Zo Xÿgaona Yyb {~Ioa Xr h¡. Bg àH$maHo$ T>m|JH$s ³¶m Amdí¶H$Vm h¡?
na§Vw h‘ ¶h nhbo hr ~Vm MwHo$ h¢ {H$ {Og h{W¶mago ‘hmamO AnZm
~Mmd H$aZo AmE h¢, dhr h{W¶ma ‘hmamOH$m {damoY H$aoJm Am¡a CÝh|
ì¶{WV H$aoJm. ‘hmamO qhXþemóm|H$mo B©ídaH$m H$m¶© ‘mZVo h¢; dh {’$a
qhXþemóm|Ho$ {H$gr {deof H$WZHo$ Ag˶ hmoZoH$m Xmdm Zht H$a gH$Vo.
Cº$ ‘hmamO ¶h Amamon Zht bJm gH$Vo h¡§ {H$ ¶h H$WZ {H$ H${b¶wJ‘|
{dY‘u‘V CËnÞ hmoJm, JbV h¡. {’$a H$B© Aݶ gåàXm¶m|H$s Vah
‘hmamOm|H$m gåàXm¶ ^r H${b¶wJ‘| CËnÞ hþAm h¡, n[aUm‘V… qhXþemóm|
Ûmam ñWm{nV {H$¶m J¶m h¡ {H$ ¶h {dH¥$V Am¡a {dY‘u h¡. ‘hmamOm|H$m
gåàXm¶ {dY‘u h¡ Am¡a gab bmoJm|Ho$ {bE EH$ ^«‘ h¡. ¶h doXm|, nwamUm|H$s
dmñV{dH$ nwñVH$m|go {gÕ hmoVm h¡ Omo {H$ nyd©‘| ~Vm¶m J¶m h¡. BVZm hr
Zht A{nVw ‘hmamOm| Ûmam H$s JB© aMZmAm|go ^r ¶hr {gÕ hmoVm h¡ {H$
‘hmamOm|Zo EH$ ZE nmI§S> Am¡a CnÐdH$mo ~T>mdm XoZoHo$ Abmdm Hw$N> Zht
{H$¶m h¡!!
ܶmZ XoZo bm¶H$ ¶h h¡ {H$ ~«÷Ho$ {df¶‘| JmoHw$bZmWOrZo ‘yb
íbmoH$H$mo {H$g àH$ma CÕ¥V {H$¶m h¡. CÝhm|Zo ³¶m {Q>ßnUr H$s h¡;
49

""Vñ‘mX² AmXm¡ ñdmon^moJmV² nyd©‘od gd©dñVwnXoZ ^m¶m©nwÌmXrZm‘{n
g‘n©U§H$V©ì¶§ {ddmhmZ§Va§ ñdmon^moJo gd©H$m¶}-gd©H$m¶m©{Z{‘V
VÎmËH$m¶m}n^mo{J-dñVwg‘n©U§ H$m¶ª g‘n©U§ H¥$Ëdm níMmV² Vm{ZVm{ZH$m¶m©{U H$V©ì¶m{Z B{V AW©….''
AVEd Bggo nhbo {H$ dh ñd¶§ CgH$m ^moJ H$ao, Cgo AnZr
{ddm{hV nËZrH$mo CÝh| (‘hmamOH$mo) gm¢n XoZm Mm{hE Am¡a Cgo AnZo nwÌm|
Ed§ nw{̶m|H$mo ^r CÝh| (‘hmamOm|H$mo) ^|Q> YaZm Mm{hE. VXþnam§V hr dh
CZH$m Cn^moJ H$a gH$Vm h¡. Amh! ¶h ³¶m {dY‘© h¡, ¶h H¡$gm R>J h¡,
¶h ³¶m àn§M h¡! h‘Zo OXþZmWOr ‘hmamOgo nyN>m {H$ {H$g doX‘|, {H$g
nwamU‘|, {H$g emó‘| Am¡a {H$g {d{Y-{dYmZ‘| ¶h {bIm h¡ {H$ AnZr
{ddm{hV nËZrH$mo ñd¶§ ^moJ H$aZogo nhbo ‘hmamOH$mo ¶m Ym{‘©H$
CnXoeH$H$mo ^|Q> Ya XoZr Mm{hE! Zm Ho$db AnZr nËZr na§Vw AnZr
~o{Q>¶m|H$mo ^r ^|Q>‘| gm¢n XoZr Mm{hE. Amh! Bgo {bIZo‘| h‘mar H$b‘
AmJo Zht ~T>oJr. h‘| A˶§V K¥Um Am¡a ì¶mHw$bVmZo amoH$ {b¶m h¡. ZoÌhrZ
bmoJm|H$m à{VnmXZ H$aVo h¢ Omo AnZr Am§Im|go XoIVo h¢ Am¡a CÝhtH$s
Am§Im|‘| Yyb Pm|H$Vo h¢ Am¡a Y‘©Ho$ Zm‘na CZH$s H$mo‘b ¶wd{V¶m|, npËZ¶m|
Am¡a ~o{Q>¶m|H$m ^moJ H$aZoHo$ {bE H$hVo h¢. Bggo ~S>m {dY‘© Am¡a Bggo
~S>m N>b ³¶m h¡? H${b¶wJ‘| d„^mMm¶©Ho$ gåàXm¶Ho$ Abmdm H$B© Aݶ
{dY‘© Am¡a H$B© Aݶ gåàXm¶ CËnÞ hþE h¢, bo{H$Z {H$gr ^r Aݶ
gåàXm¶m|Zo H$^r ^r Bg VahH$s {Zb©‚mVm, AembrZVm, YyV©Vm Am¡a N>b
Zht {H$¶m O¡gm {H$ ‘hmamOm|Ho$ gåàXm¶Zo {H$¶m h¡. O~ h‘ Bg VahHo$
J§^ra eãXm|H$m Cn¶moJ H$aVo h¢, Vmo h‘mao gab qhXþ {‘Ì h‘na H«$moY H$aVo
h¢ Am¡a CZHo$ H«$moYHo$ n[aUm‘ñdê$n h