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Over the past 25 years, Pixar's team of artists, writers, and directors have shaped the world of contemporary animation with their feature films and shorts. From classics such as Toy Story and A Bug's Life to recent masterpieces such as Up, Toy Story 3, and Cars 2, this comprehensive collection offers a behind-the-scenes tour of every Pixar film to date. Featuring a foreword by Chief Creative Officer John Lasseter, the complete color scripts for every film published in full for the first time as well as stunning visual development art, The Art of Pixar is a treasure trove of rare artwork and an essential addition to the library of animation fans and Pixar enthusiasts.

Año:
2011
Editorial:
Chronicle Books
Idioma:
english
Páginas:
323
ISBN 13:
9781452147536
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PDF, 633,94 MB
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The Art of PIXAR
 
The Complete Colorscripts and  
Select Art from 25 Years of Animation

Amid Amidi

Foreword by John Lasseter

CHRONICLE BOOKS

SAN FRANCISCO

http://www.chroniclebooks.com/


Copyright © 2011 by Disney Enterprises, Inc./Pixar
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Amidi, Amid.
  The art of Pixar : the complete colorscripts and select art from 25 years of animation / by Amid Amidi ; foreword by John Lasseter.
       p. cm.
  ISBN 978-0-8118-7963-7 (hardcover)
  ISBN 978-1-4521-4753-6 (epub, mobi)

 1.  Pixar (Firm) 2.  Animated films—United States. 3.  Motion picture plays, American.  I. Title. 
  NC1766.U52P5832 2011
  791.430973—dc22
                                                            2011005946

Designed by Jacob T. Gardner
Colorscripts layout by Janis Reed

Chronicle Books LLC
680 Second Street
San Francisco, California 94107
www.chroniclebooks.com

pages 2–3: Colorscript, Toy Story 3, Dice Tsutsumi, Digital, 2009
page 320: Colorscript, Toy Story 3, Dice Tsutsumi, Digital, 2009

Etch A Sketch‰ © The Ohio Art Company. Slinky® Dog is a registered trademark of Poof-Slinky, Inc. © Poof-Slinky, Inc. Mr. and Mrs. Potato Head® and Playskool 

Portable Baby Monitor® are registered trademarks of Hasbro, Inc. Used with permission. © Hasbro, Inc. All rights reserved. Mattel and Fisher-Price toys used with 

permission. ©Mattel, Inc. All rights reserved.

Materials and characters from the movies Cars and Cars 2. Copyright © 2011 Disney/Pixar. Disney/Pixar elements © Disney/Pixar, not including underlying vehicles 

owned by third parties; and, if applicable: Dodge, Hudson Hornet, Plymouth Superbird, Pacer, and Gremlin are trademarks of Chrysler LLC; Jeep® and the Jeep® 

grille design are registered trademarks of Chrysler LLC; Petty marks used by permission of Petty Marketing LLC; Mack is a registered trademark of Mack Trucks, 

Inc.; Maserati logos and ; model designations are trademarks of Maserati S.p.A. and are used under license; Fairlane, Mercury, and Model T are registered trademarks 

of Ford Motor Company; Darrell Waltrip marks used by permission of Darrell Waltrip Motor Sports; Porsche is a trademark of Porsche; Sarge’s rank insignia design 

used with the approval of the U.S. Army; Volkswagen trademarks, design patents and copyrights are used with the approval of the owner, Volkswagen AG; Audi 

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CORSA, MERIVA, and ZAFIRA are registered trademarks of Opel Eisenach GmbH/GM UK Ltd.; Peugeot is a trademark of Automobiles Peugeot; Piaggio is a  

trademark of Piaggio & C. S.p.A.; is a trademark of General Motors; Renault is a trademark of Renault. Ferrari Elements produced under license of Ferrari S.p.A. 

FERRARI, the PRANCING HORSE device, all associated logos and distinctive designs are property of Ferrari S.p.A. The body designs of the Ferrari cars are  

protected as Ferrari property under design, trademark and trade dress regulations. PETERBILT and PACCAR trademarks licensed by PACCAR INC, Bellevue,  

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http://www.chroniclebooks.com/


Foreword by John Lasseter  page 7

THE COLORSCRIPTS  page 8
Introduction by Amid Amidi 

FEATURES

Toy Story  page 16

A Bug’s Life  page 24

Toy Story 2  page 40

Monsters, Inc.  page 52

Finding Nemo  page 60

The Incredibles  page 70

Cars  page 84

Ratatouille  page 110

WALL•E  page 116

Up  page 128

Toy Story 3  page 138

Cars 2  page 150

SHORTS

Boundin’  page 166

Mater and the Ghostlight  page 166

Jack-Jack Attack  page 168

Presto  page 168

Lifted  page 170

Your Friend the Rat  page 172

BURN•E  page 180

Partly Cloudy  page 182

Day & Night  page 182

Rescue Squad Mater  page 184

El Materdor  page 184

Heavy Metal Mater  page 184

Air Mater  page 186

Hawaiian Vacation  page 188

La Luna  page 190

CONTENTS

THE WORLDS  page 194
Introduction by Amid Amidi 

Bibliography  page 318

Acknowledgments  page 319



FOREWORD

Pixar’s first colorscript, LUXO JR., John Lasseter, Pastel, 1986



It takes years to make one of our films, and thousands of pieces of art: 
character sketches, concept paintings, environment layouts, and color and 
texture studies, to name just a few. This work is hardly ever seen onscreen, 
but it’s absolutely essential to finding our worlds and leading us to the 
characters and places, and even events, that you see in the finished film. 
Being able to work with beautiful art every day is a huge inspiration for 
me, so I’m always excited when we have the chance to share it outside 
the studio. 

One of the most important pieces of art produced for any film at Pixar 
is the colorscript. Colorscripts are always featured in the “art of” book for 
each movie, but often there’s only room to show a piece or two. So I’m 
very happy that this book has finally given us the chance to share all the 
colorscripts produced for the studio’s films, in their entirety.

I first learned what a colorscript was early on in the development of 
Toy Story. Ralph Eggleston, the production designer, had told me he was 
going to put one together, but I didn’t know exactly what to expect when 
I stopped by his office to review it for the first time.  

On his desk was a series of very small, postage-stamp-sized images—
each from a different scene in the story—all connected together, like a 
filmstrip of the movie. It was absolutely fascinating to see Woody’s journey 
unfold in the colors of each image. They range from the warm, comfort-
ing light in the introduction to Andy’s room, to the darkness that sneaks 
into the film as Woody’s jealousy takes over, to the night scenes showing 
Woody and Buzz fighting as they try to get back to Andy’s, and finally to 
the warmth of the Christmas lights we see when everyone is reunited at 
the end of the film.

Every single element in a film must support the emotional arc of the 
story, which is really the emotional journey of the main character, and I’ve 
always felt that the two things that communicate the underlying emotion 
of a movie better than anything else are music and color. Because color  
is so charged with feeling and provokes such a strong response in an audi-
ence, it is one of the most powerful tools at a filmmaker’s disposal. The 

characters may be saying one thing, but if the color and lighting make 
the scene feel gloomy, or if the music is unsettling, the audience knows 
something else is going on—the character’s dialogue can’t be taken at 
face value. So the colorscript, which allows you to see the whole arc of a 
film’s color mood at a single glance, is essential in planning and refining 
the visual and emotional rhythm of a film to support its story. As a film-
making tool, it’s indispensable.

What’s so wonderful, though, is that, because of the amazing skill 
of the artists who create them, the colorscripts for Pixar’s films are also 
works of art in their own right, just as inspiring as the more detailed visual 
development pieces that explore the look and feel of individual scenes 
and characters. Seeing the colorscripts collected alongside one another 
is a great way to get a sense of the remarkable range of styles among 
the studio’s production designers and art directors, who work with their 
directors to establish the visual tone and direction for the films, and with 
their teams of artists to develop those ideas and ultimately bring them  
to life.

We’ve put together a selection of visual development art from our 
feature films to go with these colorscripts, featuring some of the most 
gorgeous as well as creatively influential pieces of art from each project. 
Taken all together, this compilation of colorscripts and specific explora-
tions—arcs and moments—is a terrific collection, a sort of colorscript of 
some of the looks and talents that have helped shape Pixar’s films over 
the years. I hope you’ll enjoy it as much as I do.

—JOHN LASSETER



THE
COLOR



SCRIPTS



10

Painter and teacher Josef Albers once said that if you asked a group of people 

to imagine the color red, every person in that group would have a different hue 

of red in mind.

Color is elusive. Take that same color, red. A heart is red, but so is a stop 

sign. It is a color equally capable of arousing pleasure as it is of warning of 

danger ahead. Across different cultures and religions, red symbolizes feelings 

and concepts as varied as happiness, bravery, luck, sin, and mourning. There 

are also psychological effects—seeing red can alternately make us irritable and 

elicit happiness—and physiological effects—studies have shown that the color 

red stimulates brain-wave activity, increases heart rate, and causes blood pres-

sure to rise.

The mutability of a single color, with its infinite variations of tint, shade, 

and tone, and, further, the way it is viewed in relation to its neighboring colors, 

makes color an effective tool for expressing a variety of moods and emotions. 

Its nebulous nature also gives way to personal interpretation, as when Van 

Gogh wrote that he was trying “to express the terrible passions of humanity  

by means of red and green” in his famous painting The Night Café.

For the artists who create animated films, color is integral in setting the 

tone of a film and conveying the right atmosphere to support the characters 

and plot. Few studios have explored its possibilities as the artists at Pixar have, 

and it all begins with a colorscript.

• • •

Ralph Eggleston had spent weeks thinking about the story in Toy Story, Pixar’s 

first feature film, and discussing its themes with director John Lasseter and 

other key members of the filmmaking team. In an inspired spurt of a week  

or so, he painted the colorscript, a roadmap for the way the color (and thus 

emotion) would be applied throughout the film. The colorscript, which also 

suggested lighting ideas for scenes, had been undertaken on Eggleston’s own 

initiative, and he was apprehensive about how it would be received by the crew.

As Eggleston tells the story, Lasseter stood there in silence staring at the 

colorscript for a minute or two. Then he walked over, threw his arms around 

Eggleston, and gave him a hug. Eggleston, who was in his late twenties at the 

time, nearly a full decade younger than Lasseter, had impressed the first-time 

feature director by giving him a new way of seeing the film. “It was a highlight 

of my life,” Eggleston said. “He was in another world. Honestly, it was thrilling, 

because he could begin to see the whole movie.”

Lasseter spread the word around the studio, and soon everybody was 

popping into Eggleston’s office for a look. One Saturday morning after hav-

ing pulled an all-nighter at the studio, Eggleston returned to his office, freshly 

showered, to find a stranger looking at the colorscript. The scruffy, bearded 

man, dressed in a dowdy jacket, blue corduroy shorts, and socks pulled up  

to his knees, was studying the script intently. “I said, ‘Umm, can I help you?’ 

And he goes, ‘Oh, I’m sorry, is this your office?’ It was a little awkward because 

he thought I knew who he was and I didn’t,” Eggleston recalled. “And then he 

said, ‘Oh, my name’s Steve Jobs.’” The resoundingly successful reception of 

Eggleston’s work, which had originally been just another piece of exploratory 

art, cemented the colorscript as a cornerstone of the production design  

process at Pixar.

• • •

Prior to Pixar, no animation studio consistently mapped out color and light-

ing in relation to story and character through a formal colorscripting phase. 

The process, however, is more than seventy years old, having begun with the 

early 1940s Disney animated features. The artistic choreography of certain 

musical sequences in Fantasia, like “Toccata and Fugue” and “Nutcracker 

Suite,” required dozens of color conceptual sketches that effectively served as 

“COLOR IS MY DAY-LONG OBSESSION,  

 JOY AND TORMENT.”

 —Claude Monet



11

colorscripts for those sequences. Later, the production design by Tyrus Wong 

for Bambi advanced the use of color further. Wong’s evocative inspirational 

artwork added an emotional dimension to color and aimed to “create the at-

mosphere, the feeling of the forest,” instead of the largely literal and utilitarian 

expression of color in the earlier full-length Disney features.

A similar colorscripting process was employed in Hollywood’s live-action 

films beginning in the mid-’30s when Natalie Kalmus, the former wife of Tech-

nicolor founder Herbert Kalmus, supervised Technicolor’s color-control depart-

ment. As part of her duties, she and a group of consultants would create “color 

charts” for live-action features after analyzing the script to “ascertain what 

dominant mood or emotion is to be expressed.” The comprehensive charts 

account for every scene, set, sequence, and character in a film. “This chart may 

be compared to a musical score, and amplifies the picture in a similar manner,” 

Kalmus wrote in a film industry journal.

The idea of presenting an entire animated film’s color structure in a single 

piece of artwork didn’t fully materialize until the films made at United Produc-

tions of America, the modernist animation studio that revolutionized the design 

and content of Hollywood animation. Building upon the Disney process, and 

employing many artists who had worked there, UPA created “color continuity 

sketches” for their films beginning in the mid-’40s. The studio’s color continuity 

sketches most closely resemble Pixar’s colorscripts in their goal of conveying 

the sweeping, panoramic flow of color throughout a film’s span. The biggest 

difference between the UPA and Pixar colorscripts is length; UPA’s shorts  

were between six and eight minutes long, and Pixar’s features are upward of 

ninety minutes.

The modern resurgence of the colorscript may be traced again to Dis-

ney, and one artist in particular, Richard Vander Wende. When Vander Wende 

painted a colorscript for Aladdin, he had never before seen one. His inspira-

tions were a series of color keys that Eyvind Earle had drawn for a romantic 

nighttime scene in Lady and the Tramp, as well as color bars [an abstract 

cousin of the colorscript] that had been painted for Beauty & the Beast, which 

was in production at the same time as Aladdin. On a single piece of 81/2-by-11-

inch paper, Vander Wende painted a couple of dozen thumbnail-sized gouache 

paintings capturing scenes from the entire film. “I painted it small so I could 

get it done quickly, as there were always more design decisions to be made 

than I had time for,” he said.

There is enduring ambiguity about what constitutes a colorscript in anima-

tion or at what stage in the pre-production process it should be done, with  

as many versions of the process as there are artists who create them. Even the 

term colorscript has only recently become canonized, and that is largely due  

to Pixar’s amplification of its role in their filmmaking process.

Directors, in particular, like colorscripts. For the first time in the produc-

tion, they are able to see their entire film in color, in one place, on a single 

board. Seeing things in one place is a rare event in the fragmented computer-

animated filmmaking process. The goal for both the director and colorscript 

artist, however, isn’t to dress scenes in the prettiest or most harmonious color 

combinations, as Eggleston made clear while describing his relationship with 

Andrew Stanton, the director of Finding Nemo and WALL•E. “What I really like 

about working with Andrew is that he doesn’t care about the specifics of the 

color too soon. It’s ‘What’s the story and is this feeling right for the story?’ And 

if he sees something odd, he goes, ‘What’s going on in the story there?’ He 

doesn’t ask, ‘What’s that color?’ And that’s heaven to me, because that’s all I 

want to try and focus on. It’s all about the story; it’s all about the characters. If 

you stay focused on those things and you’re in tune with the director, then you 

can actually make anything work and make anything happen.”

Colorscripts evolve in an organic manner as directors and production  

designers refine their thinking about a film. While developing a sequence in  

Up, in which we see Carl as a young man, enjoying married life with his wife,  

Ellie, lighting art director Lou Romano and production designer Ricky Nierva 

envisioned draping the sequence in nostalgic sepia tones. After seeing the 

colorscript, John Lasseter, who executive produced the film, suggested a differ-

ent approach; instead of desaturation, those scenes should be as vibrant  

“as when you first fall in love.” This kernel helped establish the color framework 

for the rest of the film, while reinforcing the dramatic arc of the story. After 



12

Ellie’s death, Carl’s world becomes dark and gloomy. Color is slowly reintro-

duced in the form of the balloons that lift him into the sky, Russell and his 

rainbow sash of Wilderness Explorer merit badges, and Kevin, the colorful bird 

of Paradise Falls. Magenta, which is Ellie’s color, remains absent from the film 

until Carl reaches Paradise Falls.

• • •

The idea for colorscripting an entire feature fermented in Eggleston’s mind 

long before he was hired as Pixar’s first art director in 1992. An animator by 

training, Eggleston had helped art direct an early-1990s animated feature, Fern 

Gully. During a particularly tight production crunch, the filmmakers needed a 

couple of hundred background color key paintings from Eggleston, and he had 

exactly three days to paint them. Realizing the impracticality of the deadline, 

he decided to make quick-and-dirty pastel drawings on thin horizontal strips 

of paper that would convey the colors for multiple scenes in broad strokes. 

Eggleston indicated general ranges of color in a linear progression, giving the 

background painters who followed him a guide for arranging their palettes.

By the time Eggleston was ready to begin his colorscript for Toy Story, he 

had also seen Vander Wende’s colorscript for Aladdin in a “making of” book 

about the film. That artwork validated his own approach on Fern Gully, open-

ing the door for expansion of a technique that he’d originally conceived in 

desperation.

The colorscript, Eggleston feels, is akin to composing a symphony, which 

is comparable to Kalmus’s assertion that the color chart is like a musical score. 

And like a composer who arouses aural interest through variations of tempo, 

rhythm, and instrumentation, Eggleston heightens the emotions in a film by 

varying his color palettes. In Finding Nemo, as Marlin and Dory descend into 

the murky depths of the ocean, Eggleston shifts to an increasingly minimal-

ist and ominous palette—a graphic intensification of Marlin’s neuroses. He will 

often choose a piece of music to listen to while drawing the colorscript—a 

composition unrelated to the film except that it captures the moods he’s trying 

to convey. For Finding Nemo, he listened to George Solti conducting the  

Chicago Symphony Orchestra’s performance of Liszt’s “Faust Symphony.”  

Albert Roussel’s ballet score Bacchus and Ariadne served as a source of inspir-

ation for another colorscript.

• • •

Bill Cone, the artist charged with creating the colorscript for A Bug’s Life, the  

studio’s second feature, had a tough act to follow, and not only because Egg-

leston’s Toy Story colorscript set such a high bar. Prior to joining Pixar, Cone 

had spent the better part of a decade creating editorial illustrations on the 

staff of the San Francisco Chronicle. Most of his work appeared in black and 

white, and he had only occasionally done color illustrations.

During the production of Toy Story, Cone was hired by Eggleston to work 

in the art department, where he drew sketches and made paintings of key  

locations, like Andy and Sid’s homes and Pizza Planet. The studio was operating 

on such a shoestring budget in those days that Cone would be hired for a few 

weeks, laid off, and then rehired.

The color work he had done up to that point had been almost exclusively 

in gouache and acrylic, but for A Bug’s Life he aspired to recreate the pastel 

look of Eggleston’s colorscript, which he felt was a masterful accomplishment. 

“It literally lit this fire,” Cone said. “I wanted to do one of those. If I ever wanted 

to get better at color, what could be a more interesting, rewarding field of 

study than to do a colorscript for a feature film?”

He struggled at first, especially when he tried to recreate the soft gradi-

ents that Eggleston achieved so gracefully, and found it difficult to mimic  

Eggleston’s idiosyncratic style of drawing with pastels on black paper. “I 

never put down enough color, so my colors were dying against the black,” 

Cone recalled. “Then, John [Lasseter] would say, ‘I love color. Give me color. 

Make it brighter.’”

Cone worked tirelessly to improve his command of the technique. Dur-

ing lunch breaks, he would take bike rides with other Pixar crew along the 

shoreline of San Francisco Bay, and he’d whip the pastels out of his daypack to 

paint quick studies of the ever-shifting sunlight and its impact on the natural 



13

environment. “I became more aware of how dynamic and complex nature is. It 

began to affect how I felt about light, and how to describe it. How to get the 

sense of the way light from the sky illuminates the world even when you can’t 

see sun, or to understand the nature of shadows. I think I became more sensi-

tive about how to use these effects in film, which was of great value for my 

work. I went out to explore nature and get away from work, but what I learned 

came back to work with me.”

Whereas a colorscript by Eggleston will usually have a theatrical quality 

of color, in the tradition of earlier animation production designers like Mary 

Blair and Maurice Noble, Cone found his authentic voice and style in the world 

of natural light. One of his earlier pieces of development artwork on A Bug’s 

Life, which went a long way toward convincing Lasseter to make Cone the film’s 

production designer, was a quick marker and colored pencil sketch on tracing 

paper that showed ants walking across a “leaf bridge,” their bodies silhouetted 

behind the translucent leaves. The unique way that light interacts with nature, 

such as creating translucency in certain objects, informed Cone’s approach to 

color and gave him “a lot of confidence about how to think on that movie.”

Cone discovered that sometimes a scene’s strength is derived not from 

how many colors are added but from how many are subtracted. During A Bug’s 

Life, Cone and Sharon Calahan, lighting director of photography, were inspired 

by a menacing fog scene in Federico Fellini’s Amarcord and wanted to emulate 

the stark atmosphere of those shots in a scene where the grasshoppers return 

to menace the ant colony. Sucking the color out of a sequence wasn’t an easy 

idea to sell to Lasseter, though. “John has some things that he’s very consistent 

about,” Cone explained. “One is he tends to love or push saturation and just 

take pleasure in it. And so sometimes I’m trying to pull him away from that 

or create a better dynamic so it’s not just up all the time.” As Cone pondered 

how to present the fog sequence colorscripts, the crew watched a nature 

documentary about insects, and, as luck would have it, there was a fog scene 

in that film, too. Walking out of the screening, Lasseter remarked to Cone, “Did 

you see the fog?” Cone seized the moment and rushed Lasseter into his office 

to show him his own fog studies.

Bill Cone also did colorscripts for Toy Story 2, along with Jim Pearson, but  

his most triumphant turn came as the production designer of Cars. By the time 

Cone began working on Cars, he had become a dedicated plein air painter 

outside of the studio, and he relished the idea of exploring color and lighting 

possibilities for a film set in the majestic expanse of the Southwest. Even when 

the palette was limited, as in the film’s numerous night scenes, he found oppor-

tunities for color. The pitch-black darkness when Lightning McQueen barrels 

through Radiator Springs chased by Sheriff is lit with the tense orangish-yellow 

glow of the streetlights and the turquoise fluorescence of Flo’s V8 Cafe, where-

as the cool blue moonlit sky of Lightning and Mater’s tractor-tipping escapades 

conveys a relaxed and light-hearted mood. The jubilant atmosphere of Radiator 

Springs with all its neon lights flipped on brings out yet another facet of night-

time. “This was some of the funnest stuff I did,” Cone said. “It’s night, but it’s the 

night I want it to be.”

• • •

Although its function remains consistent, there is no single correct way for 

producing a colorscript. Harley Jessup conjured up his own “nutty version” for 

Ratatouille. Jessup is a born experimenter and learned about color by work-

ing with backlit papers and theatrical gels on earlier cut-out animated films. 

On Ratatouille he worked small, creating a series of cut-out style illustrations 

that graphically showed the color for the sets. For the rat character palette, he 

gathered bunches of dyed yarns, arranging them onto black card stock to cre-

ate a range of stylized fur colors from violet-gray to cinnamon. Jessup resists 

following established color patterns—for example, the use of red to evoke dan-

ger or evil. Color schemes should “grow out of what the mood needs to be and 

the natural colors of that setting,” Jessup explained. “Sometimes the climax 

could be black and white or it could be colored very cool, and still get across 

the sort of climactic emotions that you’re supposed to be feeling.”

“Harley has good taste,” Cone said. “He manages to make it look good 

without going overboard in terms of effect or expression, just playful and 

lovely designs.” Jessup, like Cone, never anticipated winding up in animation. 



14

While earning a master’s degree in graphic design from Stanford, he created a 

typographically oriented animated short that showed words arguing with one 

another. The piece caught the eye of Oscar-winning Bay Area filmmaker John 

Korty, who hired Jessup to work on a series of Sesame Street segments and 

made him the art director on a quirky cut-out animated feature called Twice 

Upon a Time. He later became a visual effects art director at Industrial Light 

and Magic, where he worked on films like Innerspace, Ghostbusters II, and The 

Hunt for Red October, before ending up as production designer of the stop-

motion/live-action feature James and the Giant Peach. It was there that he met 

Joe Ranft, who brought him to Pixar.

When Jessup joined Pixar in 1996, he drew upon a wealth of production  

design experience and discovered similarities to his earlier work. “I think  

there are definite correlations between computer animation and live-action,” 

Jessup said as he described the complex lighting and cinematographic deci-

sions involved in both mediums. “Everything about CG animated features  

is still pretty new, but as in live-action films where color is concerned, there is  

a really close collaboration between the production designer and the director  

of photography.” 

For Jessup’s two most recent films, Ratatouille and Cars 2, Sharon Calahan 

created the master lighting studies (a more detailed version of the colorscript 

that communicates specific lighting and color instructions for individual 

scenes). Typically, the master lighting studies are created by the art director  

or production designer, but Jessup works differently with Calahan: “Like a 

great live-action cinematographer, Sharon has a crystal clear vision for the 

lighting design on the films we’ve done together. We work hard at the begin-

ning of the process to trade ideas and watch films together, and we feel com-

pletely on the same wavelength by the time the film is in production. Sharon 

is an excellent painter and has a wonderful sense of color besides her brilliant 

lighting talent. My goal is to design a world that is sculpturally interesting as 

well as being beautifully colored and textured. We try to give the lighting team 

something strong to work with, so I’ll always be designing with the lighted 

scenes in mind.”

Jessup’s discerning taste as a designer is reflected in the way he sets up 

universal color relationships that exploit contrasts and heighten tensions inher-

ent in the stories. On Monsters, Inc., he teamed with art director Dominique Louis 

and lighting director Jean-Claude Kalache to explore the visual contradictions 

between a drably colored, workaday industrial town setting and its population 

of bright, candy-colored monsters straight out of a child’s imagination. In Rata-

touille, Jessup and Calahan fashioned a coolly colored underground rat world 

against the warm, rich tones of the human world. Jessup explained, “This color 

dynamic supported the idea that the rats are always on the outside looking in 

and made Remy’s yearning to be part of the human world even more under-

standable.”

• • •

More recently, Pixar has turned to a younger generation of artists to create  

colorscripts: Lou Romano (b. 1972) created the colorscripts for The Incredibles 

and Up, while Dice Tsutsumi (b. 1974) was responsible for scripting Toy Story 3. 

Romano was a natural choice to create the colorscripts for The Incredibles. 

His first job in visual development had been on Ray Gunn, an unmade film 

that The Incredibles director Brad Bird had developed in the mid-’90s. Later, 

Romano helped Bird create pitch artwork for The Incredibles while he was still 

working on The Iron Giant.

Romano created three very different versions of the colorscript for The 

Incredibles, each distinct in style and tone, before he considered the job to 

be finished. The evolution of his thought process is fascinating to see. His first 

script, from 2000, was painted in gouache and is a fairly static representation 

of individual settings and characters. The transitional colorscript was created 

with a combination of gouache and digital illustration. The sixty horizontal pan-

els contain multiple scenes, reflecting how the story has been fleshed out in 

the intervening years. His saturated palette is joyous, its tone almost too happy 

for the story being told. The final colorscript, finished in 2004, was drawn 

digitally into the computer, a first at Pixar. Romano’s assertively large fields of 

solid color unveil a superheroic Matisse. Juxtaposed against punchy colors are 



15

stark areas of black and white. His riveting, high-contrast approach to color, 

which were faithfully recreated in the film to the extent that computer anima-

tion allows, reinforces the adventurous and dramatic elements of the story in 

pure color.

The colorscript for Toy Story 3 painted by Tokyo-born artist Dice Tsutsumi 

follows in the painterly footsteps of Bill Cone, albeit painted digitally. Tsutsumi’s 

first job out of the School of Visual Arts was at Lucas Learning, during which 

time he saw a lecture by Bill Cone about colorscripting. “I became interested in 

colorscripting after seeing Bill’s work,” Tsutsumi said. “His attention to light and 

color has influenced me more than anyone in the business.” 

Prior to arriving at Pixar, Tsutsumi worked at Blue Sky Studios on the East 

Coast. The colorscript he created for Horton Hears a Who! is among the more 

unconventional examples of the form. Tsutsumi infused certain colors with 

meaning specific only to the film. So, pink became the unlikely embodiment of 

devastation, and during Horton’s climactic third act, the entire palette is driven 

by pink, magenta, and violet before shifting to yellow (a complementary color 

to the others) as the film reaches its happy resolution.

Tsutsumi continued this unique approach of associating emotions with 

specific colors when he began working at Pixar. In Toy Story 3, the color blue 

has special significance. The film’s director Lee Unkrich explained, “We came 

up with the concept of blue connoting safety and home. At the beginning of 

the film, Andy . . . his bedroom is blue, the sky is blue, his T-shirt is blue. He is 

in blue jeans, he’s got a blue car—these are not accidents. These are conscious 

choices. Everything in the movie is there for a reason. We are making a com-

mitment to say that blue will connote safety and trying to avoid that in situa-

tions where we don’t want the audience to feel safe.”

The manner in which Tsutsumi combines rigorous studies of painterly 

light with an emotional application of color suggests a melding of the styles 

of Cone and Eggleston. He acknowledges the influence of Eggleston’s color-

scripts on his own process. “When I studied Toy Story to learn more about 

what was done on the original film, I could not believe how much thinking 

went into Ralph’s colorscript. His scripts are about cinematic thinking, and 

made me consider more than just painting. I turned to his approach when  

I made my Toy Story 3 colorscript.”

• • •

Colorscripts can be painted in a multitude of formats and styles, but there  

is one tenet that every artist agrees on: “Colorscripting is not about how well  

you can paint,” Tsutsumi said. “Your job is not to make beautiful pictures. It’s 

about how you can support the story with these images and lighting concepts.” 

Which is an alarming thought: if these colorscripts represent the caliber  

of work that these artists create when they’re not trying to make beautiful  

pictures, imagine what they can do when they’re actually trying.



TOY



Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, 1993

STORY



18



19



20



21



22



23



a BU



Bill Cone, Pastel, 1996–1998

G'S LIFE



26



27



28



29



30



31



32



33



34



35



36



37



38



39



TOY S



The original Jim Pearson colorscripts for Toy Story 2 were created for the direct-to-DVD 
version of the film. Once the film shifted to a feature film, Bill Cone took over to further develop 
the script, this time more for lighting than story. Due to this scenario, neither script is complete.

TORY 2



42

Early direct-to-DVD release colorscript, Jim Pearson, Pastel, 1996



43



44



45



46

Final feature film colorscript, Bill Cone, Pastel, 1998



47



48



49



50



51



MONST



Dominique R. Louis, Pastel, 1999–2000

ERS, INC.



54



55



56



57



58



59



FINDIN



Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, 2001

G NEMO



62



63



64



65



66



67



68



69



THE
INCRE



Lou Romano, Digital, 2002

DIBLES



72



73



74



75



76



77



78



79



80



81



82



83



C



Bill Cone, Pastel, 2004–2005

CARS



86



87



88



89



90



91



92



93



94



95



96



97



98



99



100



101



102



103



104



105



106



107



108



109



RATAT



Harley Jessup with Dominique R. Louis, Digital, 2004–2005

OUILLE



112



113



114



115



W



Ralph Eggleston, Digital, 2007

ALL•E



118



119



120



121



122



123



124



125



126



127





Lou Romano, Digital, 2008

UP



130

DISNEY PIXAR
pRESENT

UP



131



132



133



134



135



136



137



TOY S



Dice Tsutsumi, Digital, 2009

TORY 3



140



141



142



143



144



145



146



147



148



149



CA



Sharon Calahan, Digital, 2010–2011

RS 2



152



153



154



155



156



157



158



159



160



161



162



163



SH



This chapter features available colorscripts from Pixar’s original and  
feature-based short films. Due to production schedules, colorscripts are not created 

for all the feature short films, and some are incomplete due to time constraints.

ORTS



BOUNDIN’
Dominique R. Louis, Digital, 2002

MATER AND THE 
GHOSTLIGHT
Bill Cone, Pastel, 2005

166



167



JACK-JACK  
ATTACK
Lou Romano, Digital, 2004

PRESTO
Harley Jessup, Digital, 2007

168



169



LIFTED
Mark Holmes, Digital, 2005

170



171



YOUR FRIEND  
THE RAT
Nate Wragg, Layout by Jim Capobianco 
and Jeff Pidgeon, Mixed media, 2006

172



173

EUROPE

1347



174

NORCH POLE

ANTARCTICK

oUCH!

RAT2 3
HUMAN'S



175

ALBER+A CANAUA
EDMON+ON

CAL GAPX

PLAY MOUNTIE

AAT

US.

CANADIAN
PLAY RAT

MOUNTIE 7 RATS 0



176



177



178



179



BURN•E
John Lee, Digital, 2008

180



181



PARTLY CLOUDY
Noah Klocek, Digital, 2008

DAY & NIGHT
Don Shank, Digital, 2009

182

Opening Truck 10am Day/Night Intro - Face Off 11am Lumberjack 2pm Beach/Pool 2pm

Beach/Pool 2amLumberjack 2amDay/Night Intro - Face Off 11pm



183

Montage 2-4pm

Montage 2-4am

Vegas - Radio Tower 5pm

Vegas - Radio Tower 5am

Sunset 6-7pm

Sunset 6-7am

Day/Night Swapped 11pm

Day/Night Swapped 11am



HEAVY METAL  
MATER
Anthony Christov, Digital, 2009

EL MATERDOR
Erik Smitt, Digital, 2008

RESCUE SQUAD 
MATER
Sharon Calahan, Digital, 2008

184



185



AIR MATER
Bill Cone, Pastel, 2011

186



187



HAWAIIAN  
VACATION
Ralph Eggleston, Digital, 2010

188



189



LA LUNA
Bill Cone, Pastel and digital, 2010

190



191



192



193



THE
W



A gallery of visual development art, 1994–2010

ORLDS



196

With more than a decade’s worth of service to the company, Christine Freeman 

is the longest-employed member of the five-person team of archivists who care 

for the Pixar Living Archives, Pixar’s collection of production artwork, docu-

ments, and historical artifacts. The exact number of items held in the archives is 

not known but is estimated to be over one million pieces and growing.

Most of those million pieces originate from the art and story departments 

at Pixar, which create tens of thousands of pieces of artwork for every feature 

film. Just because a film is created with computer graphics doesn’t mean that 

a computer produces the entire film. Artists conceive of every stage of the 

film long before the first mouse button is ever clicked, and they use every 

imaginable art material to develop their ideas: pencil, marker, acrylic, pastel, 

gouache, and even clay.

In the early days of animation, the artwork used to create animated films 

was considered an unremarkable by-product of the filmmaking process. In 

those days, long before Pixar, the physical art-making materials were consid-

ered to be more valuable than anything that could be drawn onto them. Cel 

washers cleaned the sheets of celluloid onto which characters were inked and 

painted so that the cels could be reused in the following film. Unwilling to 

store them, studios routinely burned animation drawings and backgrounds in 

dumpsters. Disney, which proved savvier than other studios, sold its produc-

tion cels at Disneyland in the 1950s alongside more conventional offerings of 

hot dogs and mouse-ear hats. Disney was also the first studio to create an 

archive of its work, and today, their Animation Research Library (ARL) holds 

more than 65 million pieces.

• • •

The Pixar Living Archive began with a suggestion from Jonas Rivera, who 

proposed the idea while working as the art department coordinator on  

A Bug’s Life. One of his earlier tasks had been packing up Toy Story art-

work and shipping it to Disney’s ARL. He felt the studio should keep its 

artwork in-house as a reference and inspirational resource and, beginning 

with A Bug’s Life, Pixar’s art has never left the company. (The Toy Story 

artwork returned, too, after Disney purchased Pixar in 2006.)

When John Lasseter worked at Disney in the early 1980s, Disney’s anima-

tion art archive was called “The Morgue.” Pixar’s “Living Archive” moniker 

intentionally sends a different message. “It’s a place where artists can go to 

see the art, touch it, and in certain instances, even borrow the work,” said 

Christine Freeman. Within Pixar’s Emeryville campus, a small room serves as 

an office and processing center for the archives. The majority of the artwork, 

however, is housed in a four-story office building in a nondescript industrial 

neighborhood around the Port of Oakland. Buildings and areas within build-

ings at Pixar are named after New York neighborhoods, and the archives are 

called “Ellis Island” after the famous island in New York Harbor that housed 

the records of millions of immigrants entering the United States.

The archivists at Pixar who have been charged with protecting this irre-

placeable trove of artwork take their work seriously. They spend hours work-

ing on disaster recovery plans and collaborate with third-party experts to 

prepare for catastrophes, a necessary precaution in the infamously earth-

quake-prone San Francisco Bay Area. “I like to think we’re pretty prepared,” 

Freeman said. For starters, water is routed to the perimeter of the building 

so that pipes that could leak or cause floods don’t hang overhead. The more 

insidious threat to archives is fire—a warehouse fire started by an electrical 

fault destroyed much of Aardman Animations’ archives in 2005—which is why 

Pixar chooses to keep its materials in a building that has a waterless fire sup-

pression system. Should a fire erupt, bursts of a colorless, odorless halocarbon 

called heptafluoropropane will flood the archives, snuffing out the fire while 

keeping the artwork safe and secure. The facility is climate controlled with 

humidity maintained at an average of 50 percent (plus or minus 5 percent) 

and temperature at 70 degrees (plus or minus 2 percent), a stable environ-

ment that slows the natural deterioration of art materials.

• • •

To the viewer seeing a film for the first time, Buzz has always been Buzz, and 

Woody has always been Woody. We cannot imagine these characters look-

ing and behaving any other way. But the archives at Pixar reveal a circuitous 

development period composed of an infinite number of Buzzes and Woodys.  



197

It is an exhaustive process whittling myriad possibilities into the endearing 

and distinctive personalities that eventually appear on screen.

The same holds true for a film’s setting, which is the focus of this sec-

tion of the book. The inspirational artwork created by artists allows them to 

explore ideas for locations unfettered by the restrictions of the computer 

animation production process. As its title suggests, the art is meant to inspire 

new ways of thinking about a film. Teddy Newton’s collage studies for The 

Incredibles were created not to suggest the film’s final look, but to spur 

thinking about how to incorporate a bold and stylized mid-century design 

aesthetic. Geefwee Boedoe’s concept studies for A Bug’s Life depict  

a decorative natural world filled with electric hues of blue and magenta, ants 

in pure black silhouette, and rhythmic swirls of shapes that neatly tie the 

frame together. The effect is striking, less concerned with capturing reality 

than exciting a viewer’s senses. As a film is developed, many such avenues  

are explored before settling on an approach.

For some films, locations are more easily defined than others. Monsters, 

Inc. had a long-gestating development because it involved designing an entire 

world from scratch. Where do monsters live, work, and play are questions that 

can be answered only by an artist’s imagination. But with the idea of a South-

western desert landscape firmly implanted for Cars, production designer Bill 

Cone dedicated most of his concept drawings to figuring out how to visually 

represent the majestic scale and distinctive light of that setting. 

In recent times, the archivists’ job has shifted from storing physical artwork 

to preserving artwork that has been created digitally. Artists at Pixar are 

encouraged to work in the medium they feel best suited to the demands of a 

film, and nowadays many choose to draw and paint directly on the computer. 

Working digitally can be especially useful as a film advances deeper into 

production, since it allows the artists’ work to accurately reflect the finished 

look of the film. Paul Topolos’s digital illustration for WALL•E, created at an 

advanced stage of the film’s production, would have been difficult to recreate 

with traditional media.

The artwork created over the last twenty-five years at Pixar is proudly  

displayed inside of the studio and is made available to the public in books such 

as this one. In 2005, the exhibition Pixar: 20 Years of Animation debuted at 

the Museum of Modern Art in New York, and the show has since continued on 

a global tour across London, Tokyo, Melbourne, Helsinki, Seoul, Taipei, Singa-

pore, and Oakland. A newly curated Pixar: 25 Years of Animation exhibition 

began its world tour in Hong Kong in 2011. The principals at Pixar recognize 

the value of preserving this artwork, which tells the story not only of how the 

studio’s films were created, but of Pixar itself. Each piece acknowledges an 

unwavering commitment on the part of the studio’s artists to discover the 

strongest way of expressing a story’s visual possibilities.



198

TOY STORY Bill Cone, Gouache and acrylic on illustration board, 1994



199

TOY STORY Steve Johnson and Lou Fancher, Acrylic, 1994



200

TOY STORY Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, 1994



201

TOY STORY Steve Johnson and Lou Fancher, Acrylic, 1994



202

TOY STORY Bill Cone, Gouache and acrylic on illustration board, 1994



203

TOY STORY Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, 1994



204

TOY STORY Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, 1994



205

TOY STORY Tia Kratter, Layout by Ralph Eggleston, Acrylic, 1994. 



206

OPPOSITE

TOY STORY Kevin Hawkes, Acrylic, 1994

ABOVE

TOY STORY Steve Johnson and Lou Fancher, Acrylic, 1994



207



208

A BUG’S LIFE Tia Kratter, Acrylic, 1997



209

A BUG’S LIFE Tia Kratter, Layout by Bill Cone, Acrylic, 1996



210

ABOVE

A BUG’S LIFE Tia Kratter, Layout by Geefwee Boedoe, Acrylic, 1996

OPPOSITE

A BUG’S LIFE Tia Kratter, Layout by Geefwee Boedoe, Acrylic, 1996



211



212

A BUG’S LIFE Bill Cone, Acrylic and gouache, 1996



213

A BUG’S LIFE Bill Cone, Acrylic and gouache, 1996



214

OPPOSITE

A BUG’S LIFE Geefwee Boedoe, Acrylic, 1995

ABOVE

A BUG’S LIFE Geefwee Boedoe, Acrylic, 1995



215



216

A BUG’S LIFE Bill Cone, Pastel, 1996



217

A BUG’S LIFE Tia Kratter, Layout by Bob Pauley, Acrylic, 1996



218

TOY STORY 2 Jim Pearson, Mixed Media, 1998 



219

TOY STORY 2 Randy Berrett, Color pencil on vellum, 1997



220

TOY STORY 2 Bill Cone, Pastel, 1998



221

TOY STORY 2  Bill Cone, Pastel, 1998



222

TOY STORY 2 Bill Cone, Pastel, 1998



223

TOY STORY 2 Randy Berrett, Oil, 1997



224

TOY STORY 2 Randy Berrett, Oil, 1998



225

TOY STORY 2 Dave Gordon, Watercolor, 1996



226

TOY STORY 2 Randy Berrett, Color pencil on vellum, 1997



227

TOY STORY 2 Dave Gordon, Watercolor, 1996



228

MONSTERS, INC. Harley Jessup, Acrylic, 1998

MONSTERSINC.



229

MONSTERS, INC. Harley Jessup, Marker and ink, 1998



230

MONSTERS, INC. Dominique R. Louis, Layout by Albert Lozano, Pastel, 2000



231

MONSTERS, INC. Dominique R. Louis, Acrylic, 1997



232

MONSTERS, INC. Harley Jessup, Marker and ink, 1997



233

MONSTERS, INC. Ricky Nierva, Gouache, 1997



234

OPPOSITE

MONSTERS, INC. Lou Romano, Gouache, 1997

ABOVE

MONSTERS, INC. Dominique R. Louis, Layout by Geefwee Boedoe, Pastel, 1999



235



236

MONSTERS, INC. Dominique R. Louis, Acrylic, 1998



237

MONSTERS, INC. Harley Jessup, Marker and ink, 1997



238

FINDING NEMO Jeff Richards, Layout by Anthony Christov, Acrylic, c. 2002



239

FINDING NEMO Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, c. 2002



240

FINDING NEMO Simón Vladimir Varela, Charcoal, c. 2002



241



242

FINDING NEMO Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, c. 2002



243

FINDING NEMO Dominique R. Louis, Layout by Nelson Bohol, Pastel, c. 2002 



244

FINDING NEMO August Hall, Acrylic, c. 2002



245

FINDING NEMO Dominique R. Louis, Layout by Nelson Bohol, Pastel, c. 2002



246

FINDING NEMO Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, c. 2002



247

ABOVE

FINDING NEMO Ralph Eggleston, Pastel, c. 2002

FOLLOWING SPREAD

THE INCREDIBLES Teddy Newton, Collage, 2002



248



249



250



251

OPPOSITE

THE INCREDIBLES Teddy Newton, Pencil and marker, 1998

ABOVE

THE INCREDIBLES Lou Romano, Gouache, 2000



252

THE INCREDIBLES Scott Caple, Gouache, 2001



253

THE INCREDIBLES Glenn Kim, Gouache, 2001



254

OPPOSITE

THE INCREDIBLES Lou Romano, Gouache, 2000

ABOVE

THE INCREDIBLES Lou Romano, Gouache, 2000



255



256

THE INCREDIBLES Lou Romano, Layout by Don Shank, Gouache, 1998



257

THE INCREDIBLES Lou Romano, Layout by Don Shank, Gouache, 1998



258

CARS Bud Luckey, Pastel, 2002



259

CARS Bill Cone, Pastel, 2001



260

CARS John Lee, Layout by Nat McLaughlin, Digital, 2005



261

CARS Bill Cone, Pastel, 2004



262



263



264

ABOVE

CARS Bill Cone, Pastel, 2001

PREVIOUS SPREAD

CARS Bill Cone, Pastel, 2004



265

CARS Tia Kratter, Acrylic, 2004



266

CARS Tia Kratter, Acrylic, 2003



267

CARS Bill Cone, Pastel, 2004



268

RATATOUILLE Robert Kondo, Digital, 2006



269

RATATOUILLE Dominique R. Louis, Layout by Harley Jessup, Digital, 2002



270

RATATOUILLE Sharon Calahan, Digital paint over set render, 2006



271

RATATOUILLE Ernesto Nemesio, Digital paint over set render, 2006



272

ABOVE

RATATOUILLE Dominique R. Louis, Layout by Harley Jessup, Pastel, 2002

OPPOSITE

RATATOUILLE Harley Jessup, Layout by Enrico Casarosa, Digital, 2004



273



274

RATATOUILLE Robert Kondo, Digital, 2005



275

RATATOUILLE Dominique R. Louis, Layout by Harley Jessup, Digital, 2003



276

RATATOUILLE Dominique R. Louis, Layout by Harley Jessup, Pastel, 2002



277

RATATOUILLE Harley Jessup, Layout by Enrico Casarosa, Digital, 2005



278

WALL•E Paul Topolos, Digital, 2006



279

WALL•E Ralph Eggleston, Digital, 2007



280

WALL•E Ernesto Nemesio, Digital, 2006



281

WALL•E John Lee, Digital, 2006



282

WALL•E Ralph Eggleston, Digital, 2007



283

WALL•E John Lee, Digital, 2006



284

WALL•E Ralph Eggleston, Digital, 2005



285

WALL•E Ralph Eggleston, Digital, 2007



286

WALL•E John Lee, Layout by Noah Klocek, Digital, 2006



287

WALL•E John Lee, Layout by Jay Shuster, Digital, 2006

BL
DISPOSAL



288

UP Lou Romano, Gouache, 2008



289

UP Nat McLaughlin, Digital, 2006



290

UP Don Shank, Digital, 2004



291

UP Dominique, R. Louis, Pastel, 2005



292

UP Daniel Arriaga, Pencil, 2007



293

UP Lou Romano, Gouache, 2006



294

UP Lou Romano, Layout by Don Shank, Gouache, 2006



295

UP Ricky Nierva, Gouache, 2006



296



297

UP Lou Romano, Layout by Don Shank, Gouache, 2005



298

TOY STORY 3 Dice Tsutsumi, Digital, 2007



299

TOY STORY 3 Dice Tsutsumi, Digital, 2009



300

TOY STORY 3 Glenn Kim, Digital, 2007



301

TOY STORY 3 Dice Tsutsumi, Digital, 2008



302

TOY STORY 3 Dice Tsutsumi, Digital, 2008



303

TOY STORY 3 Dice Tsutsumi, Digital, 2007



304

TOY STORY 3 Dominique R. Louis, Digital, 2006



305

TOY STORY 3 Robert Kondo, Digital, 2007



306

TOY STORY 3 Robert Kondo, Layout by Tom Gately, Digital, 2007



307

TOY STORY 3 Robert Kondo, Digital, 2007



308

CARS 2 Chia Han Jennifer Chang, Layout by Harley Jessup, Digital, 2010



309

CARS 2 Harley Jessup, Layout by Josh Cooley, Digital, 2010



310

CARS 2 Sharon Calahan, Digital paint over set render, 2010



311

CARS 2 Armand Baltazar, Digital, 2009



312

CARS 2 Armand Baltazar, Digital, 2009



313

CARS 2 Sharon Calahan, Digital paint over set render, 2010



314

CARS 2 Armand Baltazar, Digital, 2009



315

CARS 2 Armand Baltazar, Digital, 2010



316

CARS 2 Armand Baltazar, Digital, 2010



317

CARS 2 Harley Jessup, Digital, 2010



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Amidi, Amid. Cartoon Modern: Style and Design in Fifties Animation. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 

2006.

Andrews, Robert. The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Barbagallo, Ron (2008). "The Art of Making Pixar's Ratatouille." Retrieved December 10, 2010, from  

http://animationartconservation.com/?c=art&p=articles_ratatouille.

Canemaker, John. Before the Animation Begins: The Art and Lives of Disney Inspirational Sketch Artists.  

New York: Hyperion, 1996.

Edwards, Cliff. Mystery of The Night Café: Hidden Key to the Spirituality of Vincent van Gogh. Albany:  

Excelsior Editions/State University of New York Press, 2009.

Kalmus, Natalie M. "Color Consciousness." Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Volume 

XXV, Number 2. August, 1935.

Laverty, Chris (July 19, 2010). "Exclusive Interview with Toy Story 3 Director Lee Unkrich." Retrieved  

December 10, 2010, from http://clothesonfilm.com/exclusive-interview-with-toy-story-3-director-lee- 

unkrich/13829. 

Price, Maggie (February 10, 2008). "Bill Cone and Plein Air." Retrieved December 10, 2010, from  

http://www.artistsnetwork.com/article/cone-plein-air.

Solomon, Charles. The Art of Toy Story 3. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2010.

http://www.artistsnetwork.com/article/cone-plein-air
http://clotheson.lm.com/exclusive-interview-with-toy-story-3-director-lee-unkrich/13829
http://clotheson.lm.com/exclusive-interview-with-toy-story-3-director-lee-unkrich/13829
http://animationartconservation.com/?c=art&p=articles_ratatouille


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LeighAnna MacFadden at Pixar put her trust in me, and Emily Haynes, my editor at Chronicle 

Books, helped shape the text and guided me through the rough patches. 

Some fine folks at Pixar answered my questions: Bill Cone, Ralph Eggleston, Harley Jessup, 

Ricky Nierva, Elyse Klaidman, and Christine Freeman. Many more fine folks at Chronicle and 

Pixar contributed to the making of this book: Kelly Bonbright, Andy Dreyfus, Karen Paik, 

Meg Ocampo, Sarah Boggs, Heather Feng, Jacob Gardner, Emilie Sandoz, Becca Cohen, and 

Beth Steiner. 

I’m also grateful to Richard Vander Wende and Hans Bacher for valuable historical input;  

Michael Ruocco, who transcribed the interviews and assisted in countless other ways; Jerry 

Beck, who is always ready to lend a helpful hand; and my parents and Celia for their continued 

love and support.

—Amid Amidi





AMID AMIDI is a founder and editor of the leading 
animation industry resource CartoonBrew.com. He 
is the author of numerous books, including The Art 
of Pixar Short Films and the award-winning Cartoon 
Modern: Style and Design in Fifties Animation. He 
lives in New York City.

JOHN LASSETER is a two-time Academy Award-
winning director and Chief Creative Officer, Walt 
Disney and Pixar Animation Studios, and Principal
Creative Advisor, Walt Disney Imagineering.

CartoonBrew.com




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	Cover
	Title
	Copyright
	CONTENTS
	Foreword
	THE COLORSCRIPTS
	Introduction

	FEATURES
	Toy Story
	A Bug’s Life
	Toy Story 2
	Monsters, Inc.
	Finding Nemo
	The Incredibles
	Cars
	Ratatouille
	WALL E
	Up
	Toy Story 3
	Cars 2

	SHORTS
	Boundin’
	Mater and the Ghostlight
	Jack-Jack Attack
	Presto
	Lifted
	Your Friend the Rat
	BURN E
	Partly Cloudy
	Day & Night
	Rescue Squad Mater
	El Materdor
	Heavy Metal Mater
	Air Mater
	Hawaiian Vacation
	La Luna

	THE WORLDS
	Introduction

	Bibliography
	Acknowledgments
	About the Author
	Chronicle Ebooks

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